T., Fukunaga, C., Umemoto, D., & Wicker, L. (1996). Annual review, 1990–1996: Social class, work, and retirement behavior. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 49, 159–189. doi:10.1006/jvbe.1996.0039 Charon, J.M., Vigilant, L.G., (2009). The meaning of sociology (8th ed.).
Marxism refers to the body of ideas first worked out by Karl Marx. These ideas shape a theoretical basis for the struggle of the working class to a higher form of human society (Sewell et al., 2008). Capitalism on the other hand, is the social structure that emerges on the basis of the social relationship between the consumers and the sellers of labour power (Ritzer, 2000). This essay will discuss the preconditions for capitalism, which include: commodities, surplus value and labour power. The contradictions of capitalism such as; alienation, exploitation and the decline in human development and will also be discussed, as well as contemporary examples of these found in South Africa.
Influences and Processes in Theoretical Orientation Development: A Grounded Theory Pilot Study. American Journal of Family Therapy, 35(2), 109-121. doi:10.1080/01926180600553407 Boswell, J. F., Castonguay, L. G., & Pincus, A. L. (2009). Trainee theoretical orientation: Profiles and potential predictors.
Through the Dark Ages, then through the Middle Ages, art, science, and religion had changed from Classical culture; art existed mainly for function, science was ultimately nonexistent, and religion had taken over the lives of the people. When the Middle Ages were ending, the church was losing power due to the Crusades, art began to be reborn, and science became relevant once more. These changes were brought about by three movements; the Protestant Reformation changed religion, the Renaissance changed art, and the Scientific Revolution changed science. The Protestant Reformation was a movement in Europe that caused the formation of new churches as well as the reformation of the Catholic church.
William Graham Sumner, a Yale graduated sociologist, became a prominent figure in the world of Social Darwinists. Social Darwinism was a theory that tried to apply Charles Darwin’s biological law of natural selection to the human race. Charles Darwin’s idea of natural selection explained that some animals and plants are better adapted to their environment than others, allowing them to strive more than others. On the other hand, Social Darwinists believed these same rules applied to humans and used the basis of his argument to justify the social inequalities during the time period. Sumner expressed his views on this subject in an essay written in the late nineteenth century.