These studies implied that “mental growth was not determined entirely by the unfolding of innate structures nor entirely by the influence of the environment but rather the constant interaction between the two” (Elkind, 1980, pp. vii, viii). Piaget used cognitive development to describe the nature of intellectual functioning. He has tried to unearth the primary properties of cognitive adaption which can be implied to all of the developmental stages. These fundamental and underlying properties are “found in the function rather than the structural aspects of intelligence” (Flavell, 1963, p.41).
One of Piaget’s key views was stages of cognitive development, he divided cognitive development into separate stages as follows: sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operational stage, and formal operational stage. It was hypothesized
It proposes discrete stages of development, marked by qualitative differences, rather than a gradual increase in number and complexity of behaviors, concepts, ideas, etc. The goal of the theory is to explain the mechanisms and processes by which the infant, and then the child, develops into an individual who can reason and think using hypotheses. To Piaget, cognitive development was a progressive reorganization of mental processes as a result of biological maturation and environmental experience. Children construct an understanding of the world around them, then experience discrepancies between what they already know and what they discover in their environment. Both Piaget and Vygotsky provided highly influential theories which had impact on the way children are taught.
Although no one group of theories can explain all child behaviour, each developmental theory can in its own way provide a framework for the registered children’s nurse to care for a pre-school child in hospital. In this essay, psychosexual, psychosocial, cognitive development and moral development theories will all be explored and related to the care of a preschool child aged 15 months to 5 years in hospital. Sigmund Freud developed theories to explain psychosexual development. Freud maintained that there are five psychosexual development stages; oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital. In each stage certain parts of the body have psychological significance as foci of sexual energy.
Introduction Cognitive development is a field of study in both psychology and neuroscience which focuses on the development of a child based on their ability to use mental processes to think and reason. The findings of Lev Vygotsky have become the basis of much research and theory on cognitive development over the past few decades. Body Vygotsky and Piaget both agreed that a child does not absorb knowledge passively, but rather through active participation. Vygotsky believed that children’s cognitive skills were acquired through socially interacting with the adults and children surrounding them. These interactions with “more knowledgeable others” results in active learning.
Cognitive Theory Cognitive Theory was brought to academia by Psychologist Jean Piaget among others. Piaget’s theory argues that there are stages of cognitive development in humans where there are levels of increased intelligence and capability. These stages are defined by terms, that describe the perception of what children make of their world. These thoughts are known as schemas, which Piaget said are the models by which children perceive their reality. As they reach other stages they engage in what Piaget referred to as, assimilation, in which the previous schemas are expanded upon with new details.
By teaching about failures we can motivate the students to accomplish their goals in life no matter what the circumstances may be Piaget’s Theory on Cognitive Development: Theorist Jean Piaget proposed one of the most influential theories of cognitive development. Cognitive theory seeks to describe and explain the development of thought processes and mental states. It also looks at how these thought processes influence the way people understand and interact with the world. Piaget theorized that there are four stages of Cognitive Development to account for the steps and sequence of children 's intellectual development. The final stage of Piaget 's theory is known as the formal operational stage.
Brief History Jean Piaget was a Twentieth century Swiss psychologist and was the first psychologist to systematically study the cognitive development of children. Thomas (2005) wrote that early in Piaget’s career he worked with children and his observations and interactions with the students led him to the theory that a young person's cognitive processes are inherently different from those of adults (pp. 188-9). According to Ahmad, et al. (2005), Piaget showed that when compared to adults, young children think in differently and he then came to the conclusion that cognitive development was an ongoing process which occurred due to maturation and interaction with the environment (p. 72).
He described four stages, Sensorimotor Stage, Pre-operational Stage, Concrete Operational Stage and Formal Operational Stage, beginning in infancy and ending in adulthood. According to Piaget, we use the cognitive abilities we have at each stage to construct meaning drawn from our own environment (Ornstein and Scarpaci, 2012). He believed that there are two ways to approach constructivist theory: the developmental and the environment. The developmental theory of cognition describes the structures of knowledge as pre-logical, concrete and abstract operations (Ornstein and Scarpaci, 2012). According to Piaget, children learn concepts through different stages of cognitive development, this occurs before learning occurs and concepts are internalised (Ornstein and Scarpaci, 2012).