Lev Vygotsky's Socio-Emotional Development

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Abstract
These days non-standard work schedules are becoming an hindrance to the proper functioning of families and causing a rift in the relationship between parents and children. The children are being deprived of their essential needs and this affects their socio – emotional development. This conceptual paper studies the effect of shift work on the children’s socio-emotional state. The paper focuses on understanding the theoretical background of researches conducted and carefully examines the theories. Firstly, the paper elaborates the Attachment theory written by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Secondly, the paper describes Lev Vygotsky’s socio – cultural theory. Thirdly, the paper explains Uri Brofenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory.
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In order for children to attain the basic skills that they need such as cooperation, following directions, demonstrating self-control and paying attention, they must have social-emotional skills. Feelings of trust, confidence, pride, friendship, affection and humor are all a part of a child’s social-emotional development. A child 's positive relationship with trusting and caring adults is the key to successful emotional and social development (ECDC, 2009). According to childcare experts, the most important thing parents can give their children is love. The second most important thing is discipline (Brazelton & Sparrow, 2003).

A child’s social-emotional development is as important as their cognitive and physical development. It is important to know that children are not born with social-emotional skills. It is the role of the parents, caregivers, and teachers of children to teach and foster these abilities.
A child’s social-emotional development provides them with a sense of who they are in the world, how they learn, and helps them establish quality relationships with others. It is what drives an individual to communicate, connect with others and more importantly helps resolve conflicts, gain confidence and reach goals. Building a strong social emotional foundation as a child will help the child thrive and obtain
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When one spouse works a nonstandard shift, traditional family roles are disrupted, with likely effects on children’s socio - emotional outcomes (Rosalind Chait Barnett and Karen C. Gareis, 2007). The inference is that when the parent;s involve more with their children there would be better child outcomes than parent’s who don’t involve with their children. This assumption receives considerable support from the empirical literature (e.g., Aldous & Mulligan, 2002; Updegraff, McHale, Crouter, & Kupanoff, 2001; Zick, Bryant, & Osterbacka,
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