Vygotsky assumes that learner will learn best when actively participating in a learning session with the teacher through doing constructed activities. Vygotsky builds a theory of Zone Proximal Development (ZPD) which is an undercover area of knowledge that a learner can build when teacher able to refine the way of learner perform. In social constructivism, the role of human linguistic abilities enable learner to outdone natural limitation. Vygotsky ZPD will enables the learner to reach a potential development by the guidance and participation or teacher as facilitator and peers. A learner capability of problem-solving and understanding situation will be upgraded above their actual development because constructivist believes the cognitive structures that still in the process of maturing will mature after compromising with the guidance or with the participation with others.
Kolb’s theory deals with the power of learning through experience. According to Kolb experiential learning theory, as the name suggests learning is defined as “process whereby learning is made through change of involvement. Knowledge results from the combination of
In learner-centred learning, students "construct knowledge through gathering and synthesizing information and integrating it with the general skills of inquiry, communication, critical thinking, problem solving and so on" (Perumal, 2015). How do learners learn in learner-centred teaching? The term 'learner-centred' depicts that learners are the active agents who determine how learning occurs. They "influence the content, activities, materials, and pace of learning" (Froyd & Simpson, 2000) and thus take responsibility of their own learning. The teacher, who takes the role of facilitator and coach, plays the key role of creating the necessary environment for the students so that they can learn independently.
Continuity refers to the connection of the experience with previous experiences leading to some modification of the overall experience. It is a ‘longitudinal’ aspect of experience which involves an active interaction of the inner cognitive and affective domains with the oncoming experience. The interaction principle refers to what Dewey termed as the ‘lateral’ aspect of experience implying the interaction of the individual with the environment. The value of experience in adult learning was also emphasised by Knowles in his theory of andragogy (later known as assumptions). Knowles in Smith (2002) noted that adults have a wealth of experience which can be a rich resource for learning.
The process involves four major steps: attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation. In a classroom setting, students with externalizing behaviour observe their peers’ habits and can model those habits to reflect theirs. They also examine the effect of Observational Learning Theory and imply that social interaction as advocated by educational philosophers Piaget and Vygotsky assist students with externalizing behaviours not only learn from their peers but also, they can learn through interaction in the learning environment. They further suggest when students with externalizing behavior are given the opportunity to teach their fellow students they may acquire a sense of belonging, responsibility, and pride. Vygosky’s Zone of Proximal Development using principles of the guided learning theory asserts that students learn
Bruner Piaget influenced Bruner on his research about Child development, he believed that learning is an active process and that learners need to develop their own knowledge and ideas using their current or previous knowledge. The effective instruction includes: • Personalized: instruction should relate to learner’s experiences that motivates the student to learn from within one’s self. • Content Structure: Content must be designed so it can be easily grasped by the student. He also called this aspect a “Spiral curriculum” building thinking and learning skills over time to make it deeper and more complex, builds on itself. • Sequencing: An important aspect of material presentation.
Secondly, there is a self-oriented cyclical process or the feedback circuit during learning in which students can monitor the effectiveness of their learning methods or strategies and answer this feedback in a variety of ways; it may be covertly (self-perception) or overtly (behavior). Thirdly, all of these definitions explain why and how students select to apply a special self-regulated process, strategy or
ANALYSIS OF EXPERENTIAL LEARNING ON THE LEARNERS THE EXPERENTIAL LEARNING CYCLE: The following study investigates the impact of experiential learning on learner’s life. The theory of experiential learning was given by David A Kolb, who was an American educational theorist whose study was focused on experiential learning and professional career. He gave the theory of experiential learning in 1984. His theory is based on four stage cycle and four stage of individual preparation. According to David A Kolb, learning is a process whereas knowledge is created through the transformation of experience.
The constructivist perspective challenges the traditional way of thinking about how knowledge is acquired as well as challenging objectivism, a concept central to the behaviorist view of learning since objectivism paved the way for the rise of a behaviorist perspective of teaching and learning. “In contrast, the constructivist perspective views knowledge as a form of mental representation, construction of the human mind” (Löbler, 2006, p. 28). Constructivism advocates that learning process is about memorizing information’s and repeating what teachers say. In a
Framework of the Study The present study is anchored on several learning theories. These theories helped the researcher in organizing the content and process of the study. These theories are: Experiential Learning Theory, the Adult Learning Theory, Cognitive Load Theory, the Spiral Approach, and the professional Development Theory. Fig. 1 Framework of the Study The Experiential Learning Theory Fig.
In my reading, chapter one gave me some good information about assumptions and learning tasks. Jane Vella talked about assumptions in the first chapter and how the first assumption from learners arrive with the capacity to do the work that is involved in learning. Learners must be active, be engaged and held accountable for their learning. The second assumption is that learners learn when they are actively engaged-cognitive, emotionally, and physically –with the content. Then the third assumption follows closely on new content and can be presented through learning tasks (Vella pp 2-5).