Brown et.al. (1989) defines ‘learning is a process of enculturation’ (p. 33) where end results are secondary. Another salient element that aligns with the theory is the significance of interactions. As mentioned above, situated cognition employs some form of social interaction like collaborative learning. It also encourages the cognitive apprentice approach where reflective practices of learner (learner-self interaction) and the interaction between the learner and the facilitator are crucial, similar to my personal lens.
A learning theory incorporates principles which aim at explaining changes in human performance, providing a set of instructional strategies, tactics, techniques to select from and the foundation for how and when to choose and integrate the strategies5. Learning theories offer insights into “what promotes learning effectiveness and how students learn”. Learning theories are based on principles that can guide effective teaching practice and facilitate deep versus surface learning”. Thus, to have the disposition that is required to be acquired by the learner, curriculum designers need to consider relevant and appropriate learning theories during curriculum design and implementation. The more learning theories are integrated in the curriculum design process; the more likely learners can be accommodated within the programme.
Its purpose is to guide instructors in incorporating activities and discussions that will help learners understand how they learn, their strengths and their needs, and to better understand the learning process. Metacognition is the process of thinking about thinking. It is the process of developing self-awareness and the ability to self-assess. It is contemplation about one’s education and learning -- past, present, and future. Since adults are largely self-determining, helping them develop metacognitive skills is an essential element in any program intended to increase their autonomy.
Stations or centers might be teacher-led if new knowledge is to be given or student-led if mastery is to be obtained on the information given by the teacher. Project-based is another strategy and one of the best ways to differentiate instruction due to the students’ needs and styles are addressed. Projects internalize help and support among students beside some academic skills. Tiered Activities, on the other hand, are based on the learning tasks designed at different levels of complexity according to students’ readiness levels, i.e. to be gradually given to the students ,whenever the student finishes one stage, they transfer to the other one until the task is done, or at times keeping the learning outcomes same the learning tasks can be designed according to students’ learning preferences viz.
“Formative assessment is a process used by teacher and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust on going teaching and learning to improve students’ achievement of intended instructional outcomes (Caroline Wylie and Christine Lyon, 2013).” I believe that formative assessments are essential for both students and teachers to inform instruction within lessons and they confirm how much students know about the lesson and how teacher can support to engage in their learning. I approve that asking better questions affords students an opportunity for deeper thinking and provides teachers to know the levels of students’ understanding. In my class, when I started the lesson with inquiring based questions by eliciting learners’ level of background knowledge, the students promptly gave feedback or response quickly to me. It was so notable that I could make
Kolb’s theory deals with the power of learning through experience. According to Kolb experiential learning theory, as the name suggests learning is defined as “process whereby learning is made through change of involvement. Knowledge results from the combination of
Such support can come in many forms such as ‘helping learners do needs assessments, locating learning resources, choosing instructional methods, and evaluating strategies’ Merriam p107. The second category refers to self-directed learning as a process of learning. Attempts are made to understand the process of self-direction with a view of adopting them to formal learning. They are three main models, linear, interactive, and instructional models Knowles and Tough model are linear. Knowles developed learning contract meant to encourage and support learner’s self-direction.
Assignment 1: Teaching, Learning and Technology Learning refers to the change in the subject behavior to given information brought about by his repeated experience in that situation, provided that the behavior change can not be explained on the basis of native response tendencies, maturation or temporary states of the subject ( Hilgard and Bower) , Learning is a relatively permanent change in a behavioural tendency and is the result of reinforced practice. (Kimble and Garmezy 1963: 133) Teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn, setting the conditions for learning. Our understanding of how the learner learns will determine our philosophy of education, teaching style, approach, methods and classroom techniques. (Brown
Therefore, students learn because of consequences. The social motivation is that students learn through modeling, communication of expectations, and direct instruction or socialization by significant others, especially parents and teachers (Brophy, 1987) . Social-cognitive theory, advocated by Albert Bandura, gives more comprehensive overview of human cognition in the context of social
Lessons are designed according to students learning difficulties. Students’ prior knowledge is assessed through the pre-tests and interviews as assessment tools to inform the content of the lessons. According to Hodge (2010), the key component of an effective lesson is when the teacher understands and knows about the topic. As Variation Theory using learning study is collaborative in its nature, teachers gain more knowledge on the topic as they discuss and meet to share their past experiences about teaching the topic before proceeding to the lesson. Professional Development: Teacher Collaboration Teacher collaboration in art as a professional development was stated by Vicky Lind (2007) in her study as follows: There was a transformation in the beliefs and behaviours of these teachers as they worked collaboratively to positively impact arts education.