This chapter presents the relevant theories, related literature and studies containing concepts, ideas and background information that are connected to the studys theme which were reviewed to attain a clearer perspective and to arrive at an adequate background of the study. Relevant Theory The study will directly anchor into Vygotsky 's socio-constructivist theory (1978) the theory emphasis is in the mental functions that are acquired through social relationship; learning takes when child interacts with peers and adults in a social setting as they act upon the environment; children learn by internalizing activities conducted on the word around them. It suggests that children emulate behaviors and incorporate them into their existing structures
When developing the theory, Bandura hypothesized that all social learning can be observed by people and people can learned from the observation. Bandura (1961) illustrated the Bobo doll experiment to explain how children observe people 's behaviors and copy the behaviors they have observed. Bandura stated people learn new behaviour by observing and imitating others. To support the hypothesis, researchers conduct different experiments and provide empirical evidences to support what Bandura hypothesized. Pinkham and Jaswal (2011) and Lewis (1974) conducted experiments to test if human learn from observation.
These instances of language correction, or for him, situations of embarrassment, has ended up making him a more reserved English speaker which prohibits his willingness to learn and improve. I therefore think the article is right about not having premature judgements about a child’s ability to overcome failures or
He theorized that what a person learns in their social environment passes their development. Vygotsky believed that development comes from social interactions and from guided learning from others.However, he does agree with Piaget when he said that infants are born with basic abilities/materials that they need for intellectual development. But while Piaget focused on sensory abilities and motor reflexes, Vygostsky focused on mental functions such as sensation, perception, attention, and memory. He said that is occurs from the zone of proximal development as a child and the person who’s teaching them’s co-construct knowledge. He believed that interaction between a child and a skillful tutor is vital for the child's learning.
Vygotsky theorized that interaction and language are two central factors in cognitive development (Corpus & Lucas, 2010). (Beriones, 2010) emphasized that effective learning happens through participation in social activities, making the social context of learning crucial. Parents, teachers and other adults in the learner’s environment all contribute to the process. When children with special needs are given an environment that is conducive to learning, they too will become fruitful members of the community. In addition, Lev Vygotsky Socio-Cultural Theory states that students’ learning could be more effective if it is provided with support or scaffold.
Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura’s (1997) social learning theory states that people learn from their interactions with others. It says that people learn from watching each other or by imitation. There are three types of Bandura’s social learning theory: observational learning, imitation, and behavior modeling (Bruner, 1990; Wood, Bruner, & Ross, 1976). Bandura’s social learning theory says that humans cannot learn for themselves, thus they have to control the variables in their surroundings to influence their own learning (Bandura, 1999). By this information above, we can see that we are both learners and copies of the observed action.
To begin with, the social learning theory by Albert Bandura (1977) states that humans learn behavior through observing the environment. Meaning that either on purpose or not, a model might be a teacher of behavior by being observed and imitated. But as already said, these models might have an involuntary effect – Bandura states that all what it is needed is for a human to become “student” is to have an interest in certain behavior, be able to reproduce it because if not, there is no motivation to either retain it or want to show off. Children are more likely to fall into imitation because they are learning, forming their intellect and personality and so they focus in their surroundings. The interest to replicate certain behavior can have several
Media richness theory: Assigns limited bandwidth to CMC than face-to-face due absence of nonverbal cues. 3. Lack of social context: People are more self-absorbed and less inhibited in CMC resulting in flaming. Joe Walther came up with this theory strongly advocating that CMC users could develop close relationships using this medium. CMC versus face-to-face communication: A SIP instead of GULP: Walther named this theory as signal processing theory because he believed that in relationships parties gain information about each other, to form an image or impression of who they are.
People learn from seeing the behaviour, attitudes and the result of those actions. Social Learning Theory describes human behaviours as a persistent mutual communication between the behaviour, cognitive and environment effects. Social Learning Theory increases the knowledge of the aspect of correct role modeling for children. The Social Learning Theory is a theory based on crime and criminality of individuals explaining why individuals behave in a deviant manner (Government of Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth services). Bandura’s theory concentrates on how individuals view the behaviour of others and immediately learn and develop new conducts, the Social Learning Theory demonstrates reasons for people imitating those behaviours.
Choose two or three methods of language teaching and compare/discuss the advantages and/or the drawbacks of each. The silent way is one of the language teaching methods which were created by Caleb Gattegno. He introduced this method in 1903 in his book which is called ‘Teaching Foreign Languages in Schools: the silent way”. In this method, the teacher doesn’t use many words but he only uses as little much as possible in order to give the learner or the student the responsibility to say what he wants. One of the basic principles of the silent way is that learning is more important than teaching.