This source is very useful to a historian, it explains the Soviet response to the Marshall Plan, and they believed it was a clear example of American economic imperialism. They believed the Americans were trying to undermine the Soviet sphere of influence in Europe by taking over countries and making them dependant on the US dollar so that they could not turn to communism, if they did they would face the risk of having their aid stopped. From my own knowledge, I know that one condition of receiving the aid was that countries would have to share their economic information with the USA. The soviets believed that the Marshall Plan was an attempt to place countries under their economic and political control, as demonstrated by the fact they had to share economic information. The plan was perceived as having ideological reasons and the USA were trying to control countries by making them reliant on the dollar and through fear of this money being taken away if they turned to Communism, undermining and posing a clear threat to Soviet influence in eastern
The metaphorical Iron Curtain played an important part in world history. The Iron Curtain was put in place by the Soviet Union in order to separate itself from European countries after World War II. The Soviet Union also wanted to block contract with western nations, especially the United States. The USSR’s isolation lasted until after the Cold War, which acted as the peak of tensions between the US and the Soviet Union. The quarantine allowed the Soviet Union to militarily, politically, and ideologically sequester itself from all other nations.
The Containment Policy was created by George Kennan in 1947 and was the United States’ main method of fighting against the Soviet Union during the Cold War (https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/kennan). Because the Americans were very against the idea of communism, the containment policy was needed to help stop the spread of communism growing into other countries. The United States wanted more allies, and so provided resources to multiple countries to stop them from falling to communism gained their trust. The containment policy largely contributed to the Cold War because it formed the Marshall Plan, which helped to shape the NATO and the Truman Doctrine made the war more stressful.
During the Cold War, hysteria in the U.S. ensued over the perceived threat of Communism. This mass hysteria became known as ‘The Red Scare’ due to Communist’s loyalty to the red flag. These fears were not totally unfounded, as the USSR had been spying inside America for a long time. The Red Scare became influential to world history by causing leaders to pass acts that would not have been passed otherwise that reduced the Communist Party to a shadow of its past self.. The Red Scare began after World War 2 had ended.
In response to the Marshall Plan, Stalin began really enforcing whatever power he had, “Stalin fell into the trap the Marshall plan laid for him, which was to build the wall that would divide Europe” (32). Stalin’s reaction to the Marshall Plan demonstrated a shift in U.S. policy towards the containment of Soviet influence and gave way to Truman’s approval of NSC-68. The document was essentially an outline of American strategy in response to communism, it greatly increased the defense budget, and to more broadly define it, it allowed America to take “any measures, overt or cover, violent or non-violent” to advance our cause in the Cold War without “jeopardizing the integrity of our system” (170). This eventually gave purpose to the Vietnam War, but conclusively, Truman’s contributions were
Although the war, caused by tension, after World War 2 is called the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union were heated with one another. The United States and the USSR had tension because of the USSR’s communist tendencies. The term “Cold War” comes from author George Orwell because there were no actual physical encounters between the two. This tension led to the creation of the Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine. The Truman Doctrine was George Kennan’s idea to contain communism by using force and changing political and geographical areas.
The Reagan Doctrine of 1985 is a phrase used that describes former President Ronald Reagan’s foreign policy. The goal of this policy was to defeat Communism, and weaken the Soviet Union through a process known as “roll-back”. Under the Reagan Doctrine, the United States gave covert and overt aid to resistance movements and groups to roll-back Soviet-backed Communist movements and governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In addition to defeating the Soviet influence, the Reagan doctrine also aimed to strengthen the American people and reduce their reliance on the Government. The policies under this doctrine are what caused the global decrease of Soviet influence, improved relations with the Soviet Union, strengthened the American
His case studies of Germany, France, and Russia, allows for one to clearly see the trend of the continental powers of Europe adopting offensive doctrines. Most importantly, his explanation of the social and bureaucratic roots of the “Cult of the Offensive” clearly demonstrates the drift of the case studies coming to believe that preemptive war was the only option left. Finally, Snyder’s correlation of the “Cult of the Offensive” that enveloped pre-WW1 Europe with Soviet military policy in 1984, shows the practical applications of his theory to be used as a tool in identifying worrying trends in international relations. In a modern context, one could take North Korea as a case study, and see if the roots of the “Cult of the Offensive” that Snyder identified as evidence for his thesis have taken hold of the state. Therefore, his explanation of the root causes of the “Cult of Offensive” and the unstable system it created, shows how it was a contributing cause to World War
Wars fought in the pre 9/11 time were strategized on the opponents government and military strengths. The purpose of armed forces in the past were for "defense, deterrence, compulsion or intervention". (Swistek, YEAR) Military diplomacy now focuses on peacekeeping in the interest of modern foreign and security policy. Swistek articulates some of the major tasks on military include: "arms control, non-proliferation, and confidence- and security-building measures. [along with] Outreach activities".
It is said that the conflict between these two superpowers stemmed from how the recovery after WWII should proceed, as both countries had very different ideas in mind. The United States, for example, believed that the world should adopt a policy of democratic relations, in which all countries worked together to insure self-determination between countries. The Soviet Union, on the other hand, believed
If one would argue that the origins of the Cold War should be traced to World War II and the breakdown of the wartime alliance between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. This all started by one act of betrayal. For example in Document C where Soviet Ambassador Nikolai Novikov states that “ The foreign policy of the United States ,which reflects the imperialist tendencies of American monopolistic capital, is characterized in the postwar period by striving for world supremacy.” The belief that freedom and democracy would die under the communist rule caused the United States to start a problem or feud that would last for a long time. The decisions made by the United States in W.W.II caused tensions to start between the U. S. and the Soviet Union. Communism spread though the nation.
Imagine if you lived in a place where you had no freedom, and you were ruled by a man like Joseph Stalin. That is what it would be like in many countries if it weren’t for the United States’ policy of containment. During the Cold War, the Soviet Union wanted to take over other countries and make them have the government system of Communism. The United States didn’t like that, because they thought their governmental system of Democracy was better. As a result, the U.S. adopted a policy of “Containment”.
In the image on document 2, although NATO had more nations on their side, Warsaw satellites created a buffer for the Soviet Union. The Warsaw nation members did this by all the nations surrounding the Soviet Union were a part of the pact meaning that this skillful strategy made it so enemies would have to go through others before being able to get to the Soviet Union and neighboring nations made it easy to come and protect fast. This area is also known as the “Soviet Sphere” as Winston Churchill calls it in his “ Iron Curtain” speech of March 5, 1946. The Iron Curtain was a dividing line before the Cold War even began. Another “weapon”, the Soviet Union had was also the United States fear of nuclear weapons because they were in an arm race.
The end of the Second World War brought dramatic changes to the world, including the role of the United States. In an effort to maintain a global position of dominance, the nation engaged in a Cold War with the Soviet Union. While Americans supported a capitalistic model of society, the Soviets supported a Communist one. These two world powers fought to exchange socioeconomic models for alliance and support from third-world countries. The US was frightened by the spread of Communism, especially to their own nation.
The Cold War was believed to be inevitable by some historians. It was a time when communism was feared in America because of Joseph Stalin’s bloodthirsty empowerment and control of his country. Whitfield’s book is divided into chapters that go in depth with the voices of popular culture. According to him these voices contributed an astounding amount to the nineteen-fifties. Whitfield brings in certain public figures that were apparent in those times to serve as case studies throughout the book.