One of the aspects of language is speech sound. The study of speech sound in language is called phonology. Each language has its own speech sound structure which differ from one language to another language. By learning the speech sound structure of language, not only can we recognize and understand how to pronounce a word of a language correctly, but can also produce the word using correct pronunciation. Furthermore, we will be able to explain why we should pronounce it that way.
These models include both linguistic and non-linguistic components of L2 listening ability, and attempt to synthesize different sub-skills and sub-components of L2 listening into a single construct. To apply the knowledge, Rost (2013), Goh (2000), Wilson (2003), Vandergrift (2007), Prince (2012) divides into bottom-up and top-down processes in listening comprehension. Moreover, Rost (2013) describes that model of L2 listening ability should consist the components: phonological knowledge, syntactic knowledge, semantic knowledge, pragmatic knowledge and general knowledge. The terms of knowledge refer to components of listening ability. According to Rost, the use of syntactic, semantic and pragmatic knowledge quickly covers the bottom-level (skill-specific) ability of L2 listening comprehension.
As per the Multi store model, the final destination of the memory process is Long term Memory. This may be divided according to the types of information being processed. This can take two forms: Explicit (or declarative) and Implicit (or procedural) memory. Declarative memory is information that can be easily verbalized or declared hence they need to be recalled through conscious effort. It is a subset of explicit memory since declarative memory comprises of information that can be explicitly stored and retrieved (Human-memory.net, n.d).
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Definition and backgrounds of theories and concepts connected to this study are provided in this chapter. Reviews of previous studies on code-switching, bilingualism and computer mediated communication which are homogenous to this study are provided. 2.1. Bilingualism 2.1.1. Definition of bilingualism The notion of bilingualism is frequently connected to the idea of code-switching since a person should have ability to speak using two or more than one variety.
Chapter 2 Human Speech Production and Perception 2.1 Human Speech Production Speech signals are composed of a sequence of sounds. These sounds and the transition between them serve as a symbolic representation of information. The arrangement of sounds (symbols) is governed by the rules of the language. The study of the rules and classification of speech is called phonetics. The purpose of processing speech signals is to enhance and extract information, which is helpful in providing as much knowledge as possible about the signal’s structure i.e., about the way in which information is encoded in the signal.
The feature identification involves finding the entity or features about which the opinions are expressed in the sentences. The pre-processing step provides with the word along with the tag. The English dictionary part of speech tags the entity or feature word with the Noun tag i.e. NN or Proper Noun i.e. NNP.
In literal sense, language can be defined as a system of symbols as well as rules that are used for meaningful communication. It is important to note that a system of communication must meet certain measures before it is considered a language. Languages make use of symbols, which could be sounds, gestures, or written characters which represent objects, actions, events, or even ideas. A language is full of meaning and therefore can be understood by the same users of that language. Language is also generative, which means that the symbols of a language can be joined to create a vast number of messages.
Bublitz also provides an overview of research on the relationship between cohesion and coherence and arrives at a pragmatics oriented perspective; coherence becomesa“context-dependent, user-oriented, and comprehension-based notion”;so as to juxtapose it against cohesion, coherence is taken to be an invariant property of discourse. Form and structure oriented linguists who consider a text as a long sentence or a unit beyond sentence focus on cohesion as an imperative feature of textuality; function oriented linguists, on the other hand, who regard a text with any linguistic expression of any length, which is used to perform a special function, focus on coherence as the essential feature of
Thus they first divided cohesion into five main categories: reference, substitution, ellipsis, conjunction and lexical cohesion. Then they classified them to other broad categories: grammatical cohesion and lexical cohesion. Lexical cohesion is subdivided to reiteration and collocation. Each of these categories is classified in details with examples for each as follows: 1-Grammatical Cohesion explores the important ways that grammar holds texts together across sentence boundaries, it is subdivided
More recently, pragmatic competence is considered to be “an understanding of the relationship between form and context that enables us, accurately and appropriately, to express and interpret intended meaning” (Murray, 2010, p. 293). The definition of pragmatics competence regarding the importance of analyzing language through negotiation of meaning, provide us with a