Erik Erikson developed his 8 stages of psychosocial development to explain how humans evolve emotionally, mentally, and morally from infancy to adulthood. In each stage a person confronts and hopefully masters a set of challenges. Erkison, “believed that humans have to go through certain stages in their lives if they want to reach their full development and those stages have expanded from the moment they are born to the moment they die”. (Erikson) Trust Vs Mistrust. This stage Trust vs. Mistrust.
The transitional phase that follows, terminates the existing structure and creates the possibility for a new one. The primary tasks of every transitional period is to reappraise the existing structure, to explore possibilities for change in the self and the world, and to move toward commitment to the crucial choices that form the basis for a new life structure in the ensuing period. Levinson divides adulthood development into stages or phases. The first stage in Levinson’s theory is called the early adult transition (ages 17-22). The problem at this stage is to develop a sense of independence by separating from one’s family and trying out new things and the other different lifestyles.
The kinds of questions he prefers to ask this population is “where do you see yourself in five years”, “how were your past relationships”, and “what are your strengths”? The development perspectives he uses are Erikson’s personality theory. Throughout his professional career, he noticed how the adolescent years are expanding from 12 years old to 30 years old. In addition to counseling young adults who are still preforming adolescent behaviors, Hoober finds himself looking back at Erikson’s Identity vs. Role Confusion stage. This is where an individual between the ages 12 and 20 are moving towards adulthood and making choices, goals, and vocations that will influence their adulthood (p.
In recent decades, youth studies became emerging issues among the academician, policymakers, but still in the process of developing an appropriate theory on youth deviance, social problems, sub-culture, the generation gap and social construction. The following are some of the theories relating to young people: Theory of Psychosocial development Erik Erikson’s theory of psychological development was influenced by Sigmund Freud (Erikson, 1968). Erikson too believed that personality develops in a series of stages. This theory describes the impact of social experiences across the whole lifespan. Erikson had developed eight stages of psychosocial development such as infancy (birth to 18 months), toddler (18 months to 3 years), preschooler (3 to 5 years), school age child (6 – 12 years), adolescent 13 – 19 years), young adult (20 – 39 years), middle-aged adult (40 – 55 years), late adult (55 – 65 to death).
As adolescences enter adulthood, they enter a long transitional period, often known as “emerging adult”. This transitional period takes place over a range of 18 to 25 years old (Santrock, 2013). At this stage, emerging adults are still in exploration in the various aspect of life such as the career path they are interested in, defining their identities and a style of living they would want to adopt. Thus, adolescences who are in transition will be caught with many intense changes and will experience major life events that are all of great importance. According to Jeffery Arnett (2006), emerging adult can be defined by the 5 key characteristics, namely: Identity exploration, Instability, Self-Focus, Feeling in-between, and the Age of possibilities where
(2012). Anticipatory guidance for cognitive and social-emotional development: Birth to five years. Paediatrics & Child Health, 17(2), 75–80. According to Dosman & Andrews (2012) Anticipatory guidance for cognitive and social-emotional development: Birth o five years, at the age of 4 a child developes more self control over aggression and other impulses, and gains a gender role and sense of self beyond immediate family. He should start to acquire knowledge of social expaecations and have the ability to distinguish between what is real and pretend.
Define Lifespan Development Perspective What is lifespan development psychology? Boyd and Bee (2009) explain that psychologists who study human development have recently adopted the lifespan perspective which “maintains that important changes occur during every period of development and that these changes must be interpreted in terms of the culture and context in which they occur” (p. 4). Before this the subject of development was often limited to childhood. This new perspective gives the same level of importance to changes in adulthood which had previously been focused exclusively on changes in childhood (Boyd & Bee, 2009). In order to define lifespan development psychology we must understand the different context by which it is characterised.
Maturation in the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Maturation proves an essential part of everybody’s life; especially that of a young person. As people grow older, views, activities, and interactions with others change, as one becomes more mature. In the twentieth century novel, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain reveals the differences between childhood and maturation to show how every child must grow up, by contrasting the differing views of different people, particularly those of adults and children. A child must always grow up, however often situations throughout life may cause a child to grow and mature at a different rate. Difficult situations often cause a child to attempt to mature quickly in order to deal with the problem,
In my past 23 years I have had a number of “big moves”, either moving between schools or moving between countries. For the purpose of this essay, I will speak about my first “big move”, which was when I was 12 years old. Although I wasn’t aware of it then, I realise now that I was subconsciously using elements of the ADKAR theory. According to Hiatt (2006), the ADKAR Theory focuses on change down to the individual. The ADKAR Theory of change can be broken down into 5 steps, Awareness – to create an understanding for the need for change, Desire – to create a desire so people support the change, Knowledge – to provide information so people know how to change, Ability – to provide training so people get the skills in order to implement the change
The stages from infancy to late childhood begin with ‘trust vs mistrust’, ‘autonomy vs shame/doubt’, initiative vs guilt’, and ‘industry vs inferiority’. Once the individual has hit their teenage years throughout early adulthood and finally to late adulthood, the stages they face include, ’identity vs role confusion’, ‘intimacy vs isolation’, ‘generativity vs stagnation’, and ‘ego integrity vs despair’. The first stage is where ground rules are made to impact a child’s life one