Lippitt’s change theory focuses on the change agent instead of change itself. Lewin’s change model makes efforts to examine the forces (restraining or driving) that influences change. For Prochaska and DiClemente’s change theory the model is not linear but cyclical. This theory takes failures or relapses to change to the preferred behavior the first time into account. Thus, individuals that might take failures or relapse can revisit the contemplation phase and make plans for future actions.
Lewin’s model for managing change Kurt Lewin developed a model of the change process that has set the time test and continues to influence the way organisations manage planned change. Lewin’s model is based on the idea of force field analysis. The below figure shows a force field analysis of a decision to start in exercise behaviour. Equilibrium This model says that a person’s behaviour is the product of two opposite forces: one force pushes toward preserving the way things are working now, and the other forces pushes for change. When the two opposite forces are about equal, behaviour is current maintained.
The pros of both Kotter’s and Lewin’s is the fact that initiating change usually bring good development to an organization. Encouraging and accepting external influences also brings on a company to a lot of exposure which brings on good opportunities. The cons of the two men theories though is that there are no changing of the status-quo since change are only effected by top level management. Again there is lack of empowerment to effectively evaluate and make sure the change do occurs by the team for managing change. On Nadler’s theory, according to Wyman, (1995), the model’s theory does not put strict restrictions on the organizations of the managers and does not design a specific structure of the organization.
Comparing to other models of change, this model has been choosing in this dissertation as it provides a vigorous, theoretical sight of the change. It is also, one of the simplest models and easy to implement (Barr and Dowding 2008). It is important to highlight on that Lewin’s model is usually focuses on driving forces and resistance forces. The driving force is when the change agent attempts to initiate the change while resistance force is when the individual refused to follow to change (Kritsonis 2005). In this case, the driving force will potentially have to deal with resistance from those who do not want or like change.
Unlike Lippitt’s change theory, Lewin emphasised on teams or work groups to bring about change. The reason being people in an organisation work in groups, and that individual behaviour will have to be conformed to the groups’ norms and fundamental practices (Burnes, 2009). “Unfreezing” is the stage to destabilize the current equilibrium so as to initiate change. According to Kurt Lewin’s Force Field Analysis (Lewin 1951), behaviour is a force in equilibrium and change will only occur when there is a disequilibrium in the force. The most important step for this stage is to identify the change focus, which in this case is the implementation of eIMR in the ED.
Kurt Lewin’s major contribution lies in the field of Group Dynamics, Field Theory and Action Research. He modelled the social change process in organisational, particularly, industrial setups. 1. Group Dynamics: - Lewin’s definition of a group is widely accepted. Here the basic line of argument is that groups come into being in a psychological sense ‘not because their members necessarily are similar to one another (although they may be); rather, a group exists when people in it realize their fate depends on the fate of the group as a whole’ (Brown 1988: 28).
Levinson theory conceptualises the basic pattern of the life structures that humans go through in their adulthood. The pattern comprises of an orderly sequence that manifests with variations. The sequence of stages consist of alternating series of structure-building and structure-changing (Transitional) periods. During the structure building phase, one makes choices, forms structures around them, and pursues their values and goals within this structure. The transitional phase that follows, terminates the existing structure and creates the possibility for a new one.
It became clear that change was needed within the company. The change management model used for establishing the change plan is Kotter’s eight-step model for leading change. This model identifies a roadmap which is easy to follow in order to guarantees a successful organizational change. The first three steps are creating a climate for change, followed by engaging the organization and the last two steps are about sustaining and implementing the change. (Kotter, 1995) The model is defined based on the following
Also, the Lewin’s model is designed to assist with determining those behaviors that can impede and drive change (Sutherland, 2013). It is for these reasons that I have chosen Lewin’s change model. Lewin’s model for change has three phases (a) unfreezing, (b) movement, and (c) re-freezing (Marquis & Huston, 2015). The feedback, from internal and external sources, is an example of “unfreezing” in Lewin’s Model. During this phase of the process the following steps occur: • Meet with the nursing directors of the