It was set up not only to deter an attack on Europe by the Soviet Union, but also to alley West European fears of revival of German militarism (Martin Griffiths,Terry O'Callaghan&Steven C. Roach, 2007). Moreover, from the political perspectives, US does so simply and mainly to balance its power with China who apparently seems cunning and bullying over many world’s issues. Another example that indicate this term is Cold War. Between 1947 and 1991, the international system was dominated by bipolarity; Russia and United States had the status of superpower and, as Mearsheimer suggests, due to the balance of power determined by the bipolar system, “the post-war era, the period of the Cold War, has been much more peaceful” (Voinea,
For both the U.S. public and the Johnson administration, the heavy fighting in early 1968 brought with it a demand for reexamination of American policies. As historian Doris Kearns Goodwin has recorded, Johnson similarly insisted that his policies had not failed and that he had not been forced to begin American de-escalation after the Tet Offensive. The resulting pressures forced Lyndon B. Johnson to confront some of the hardest issues that any American president has ever faced. They led him, in the end, to choose the path of negotiation, de-escalation, and tentative disengagement as less dangerous to America’s domestic stability, economic health, and international stature than the highly uncertain path of more arms and troops. This proud politician, nearing the end of more than thirty years of public service, clung stubbornly to the illusion that he could still salvage an honorable settlement of the war that he knew would forever define his
These confrontations have seen the world potential nuclear power threat. During the cold war period USA was able to become the leader of the capitalist world, the survival of Western civilization and the guarantee of liberal-democratic values in the west. At the same time, it became clear that the US sought to obtain political and economical supremacy throughout the noncommunist world that is why Europe and Japan were persistently resisted. However, classical isolationist policy of the US that America have been spending during the 150 years, has transformed from protectionist into very active foreign policy. Korean war itself has been started as a civil war between North and South Korea but it suddenly changed its status and became an international conflict, when USA
This emphasises the positive effects the plan had on West Germany’s post war recovery, which was drastically economically and socially effected by the war. However the source is limited by a political agenda because Adenaeur was criticised by opponents as the ‘Western Chancellor’ due to his strong alliance with the West. This gives him potential to exaggerate because of his political reputation of a close relationship with the US, which sparked criticism from members of opposition parties within West Germany. A particular critic being Kurt Schumacher who disagreed with
Iraq owed a substantial amount of money to Kuwait for the expenses in the Iran-Iraq War. In the wake of taking the oil, Saddam Hussein attempted to replenish his nation’s financial deficit with the revenue he “produced using extra oil deals” (3). Assuming control Kuwait would eliminate his obligation. Hussein claimed that Kuwait owed him for battling the Iranians for the advantage of all Arab countries. Additionally, he convinced himself that Kuwait should be a territory of Iraq since it was originally a domain of the Ottoman Empire.
The Arduous Struggle Against Communism The Cold War was not the stereotypical war, instead, it involved many different strategies and approaches to try and resolve a conflict between two great powers. Although the United States and Soviets had fought together during World War II, they soon entered a time of pressure between the two, better known as the Cold War. The textbook explains the policy of containment as a way of fighting communism with the use of the military, military aid, and economic aid(Ayers,et al 819). The three presidents that were in office during the Cold War preferred using different aspects of the policy and each president’s mistakes helped influence the next president 's choices. Before the Cold War, Truman had been the one to make the final decision to use the first nuclear bomb and he saw the devastation it had brought with it.
The Gulf War- A Realist Perspective Introduction Persian Gulf War, also called Gulf War (1990–91), was an international conflict that was triggered by Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990. Iraq’s leader, Saddam Hussein, ordered the invasion and occupation of Kuwait with the apparent aim of • acquiring that nation’s large oil reserves, • canceling a large debt Iraq owed Kuwait, • and expanding Iraqi power in the region. If Saddam were successful in capturing Kuwait, he would be considered the Supreme Leader of the Oil rich area. But it was not only a question of oil; territory was another relevant issue in Saddam’s agenda. He wanted to gain access of an old disputed territory, Kuwait.
The invasion of Kuwait is a main cause of the Gulf war because after Iraq invaded Kuwait other Arab powers such as Egypt and Saudi Arabia asked the United States and other western nations for help. After a month and a half of non stop attacks by the allied forces in the air, U.S. President George H.W. Bush declared a cease-fire which is a temporary treaty, but by that time, most Iraqi forces had surrendered. Another important cause of the Gulf war was nationalism. This was an important cause because nationalism is a sense of national consciousness exalting one nation above all others and this is exactly what Iraq wanted.
As Soviet Union was communism country, contrary to capitalism applied in other European countries, USSR could not build up relations with the Great Powers and properly cooperated with them, even though both of these countries desired to hinder Germany’s expansion. The mistrust owing to the difference of ideology facilitated the signing the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact of 1939. Thus, Germany could ensure USSR not to be engaged in the beginning of WWII, and thereby avoiding to fight a two-front war. That is to say, the signing allowed Germany to start WWII more confidently, and it was somehow because of WWI. In conclusion, with regard to the occurrence of the WWI and WWII, they were advocated based on different factors and implied different meanings but both of them left the world significant influences.
To examine the Cold War consensus, one must discuss the Cold War. The Cold war was the tension between the United States, standing for capitalism, and the USSR, standing for totalitarianism and socialism, following World War II. Although it was not a physical war between the two superpowers, many proxy wars had came out of it as way to spread or combat communism throughout the Free World. The Free World, as the U.S. came to define it, did not necessarily mean free as countries were being ruled by military regimes and dictatorships, but free from communism(70). During the Cold War, the spread of communism frighted the American People.
Now, this “nation-as-person metaphor fits two classic fairy tale mythologies, self defense and rescue. The hero (the U.S. and any allies) confronts a dangerous, evil and irrational villain and must defeat him, liberating his oppressed people” (Harmon and Muenchen 2). This spin was of course picked up by sources traditionally on better terms with conservatives (Fox News being the most notable). This was not an isolated incident. Running for reelection in 2004, Bush campaign officials orchestrated or at least reiterated false allegations made against Senator Kerry and his war record carefully to let the press loose with their narrative
This is how America during the Cold War era overthrew Iran. “All knew they had changed the course of Iranian history (128).” This was not really a success because we invaded their territory because the British told America that Mossadegh was a communist and was not really clear as to why they needed American help. During the Invasion era, Reagan was awakened up early morning to hear devastating news, a Marine camp was blown up by a suicide bomber in Lebanon. Days before, Reagan approved of entering, but he could back out if he wanted. This event “intensified the desire of many Americans for some kind of revenge (223),” Americans wanted to show how strong our nation had become and wanted to prove
President Roland Reagan outshined three pervious president, Carter and Nixon and Ford on the Cold War Strategy. He refused to continue with Nixon’s Détente which was later renewed. To defeat the Soviet Union. Regan’s interest was applying principles through military measures and diplomatic relations which contributed to the end of the cold war. Reagan’s tactics was to rearm and strength the military, the Secretary of Defense, Casper Weinberger acknowledged it could crippled Soviet Union’s Military and economy causing disorder.
Such as the following. After John Fitzgerald Kennedy was out of office in between elections, he was still focused on the economic and political issues and conflicts in the US. While JFK was still alive, he remodeled America’s politics. Albeit his inexperience before entering office is thought process and decision making was reasonable and becoming of a rookie. There was the reasoning behind him wanting to end the war, however is was not the right way to end the war and there were many refutations to the decision.
An old policy, with a new look. The Truman Doctrine changed the path of the U.S. involvement in international affairs. The pledge was to provide civilian, military, and financial aid to countries who were threatened by Stalin and Communism. This policy was indeed successful, but it led President Eisenhower to come with a new and improved approach, while still upholding the Truman Doctrine. The New Look Foreign Policy, crafted by Eisenhower, was a less expensive way to defeat the Soviet Union and contain Communism, while increasing the standard of living.