Women have a longer life expectancy than men on average. Even in past years, women have lived longer than men. The average life expectancy for men was 46.3 years and for women was 48.3 years in 1900. Average life expectancy for men increased to 65.6 years and 71.1 years for women in 1950 (Life Expectancy). From 2010 to 2013, the life expectancy for men was still lower: 68.5 years and for men and 73.5 years for men (World).
Medicare has been the traditional health care insurance for the elderly for decades. As the aging population rises rapidly, there is an increased demand for coverage for baby boomers as they use almost double the amount of health care as younger generations (Williams & Torrens, 2008). By 2029, 75 million baby boomers will be expected to reach the age 65 (Mann, Raphael, Anthony, & Nevitt, (2016). One of the main questions is how will this generation afford long-term care as it is the personal responsibly of the patient (Edlund, Lufkin, & Franklin, 2003). There is a very limited coverage of benefits for long-term care.
INTRODUCTION The worldwide rate of cervical cancer has come down to two-fifth of what it was 50 years ago, mainly due to effective Pap smear screening1. However, 75% of the new cases are reported to occur in the developing countries, mainly due to ineffective screening programmes or lack of awareness. It is the most common neoplasm among Indian women and accounts for 20–50% of all cancers in India and 80–85% of female genital cancers in India2. India has significant socio-demographic risk factors and unhealthy clinical findings for cervical carcinoma. With modern methods of cervical screening like liquid cytology, the effectiveness of Pap smear, a screening modality of lower sensitivity, is now in question.
It just happens sometimes, usually on accident. Consequently, just having AIDS is bad enough. There are many symptoms, including a weakened immune system, fevers, weight loss and even diarrhea. (Kallen 26) First is the asymptomatic stage. There are symptoms in this stage include lymph nodes enlargement, body rash, and mouth and skin problems (“Symptoms and Stages”).
It can also stem from allergic rhinitis. A patient with rhinosinusitis will present with complaints of fever, malaise, HA, sinus pressure, sore throat, purulent nasal discharge, cough, ear pain, and teeth discomfort when grinding them together. Diagnosis is based on patient’s report of symptoms and physical exam findings. This patient has malaise, fever, HA, sinus pressure, sore throat, cough, and tenderness noted when grinding teeth together. Bacterial rhinosinusitis is the final diagnosis for this patient.
The death rate of patients diagnosed with ventilator associated pneumonia is up to 33%(Halyard, 2015), and higher than the rate of death due to central line infections, sepsis and respiratory tract infections. Furthermore, for each case of ventilator associated pneumonia, the cost of care for each patient increases by $40,000 to $57,000(Sedwick, 2012) and they stay an estimated 4 to 6 days longer in the ICU (Halyard, 2015) as compared to intubated patients not infected with pneumonia. Ventilator associated pneumonia is one of the leading problems amongst intensive care units worldwide and the implementation of a VAP prophylaxis bundle protocol can improve the outcome for mechanically ventilated patients. Throughout this paper, three evidence-based research articles aimed at improving the outcome of ventilated patients are explored.
There are many ways for someone to get the scarlet fever. The Scarlet fever is caused by group A streptococcus, which are bacteria that can live in your mouth and nasal passages. The infection may be spread through contact with droplets from an infected person’s sneeze or cough. This means that your child can contract scarlet fever if they touch their mouth, nose, or eyes after touching something that has droplets from an infected person on it. They may also get scarlet fever if you drink from the same glass or eat from the same plate as an infected person.
CASE FATALITY RATE Case fatality rate is also called case fatality ratio. It is defined as the proportion of people who die from a specified disease among all individuals diagnosed with that specific disease over a certain period of time. Case fatality rate is typically used as a measure of disease severity and is often used for prognosis (predicting disease course or outcome), where comparatively high rates are indicative of relatively poor outcomes. Case fatality rate is calculated by dividing the number of deaths from a specified disease over a defined period of time by the number of individuals diagnosed with the disease during that time; the resulting ratio is then multiplied by 100 to yield a percentage as showed below: Case fatality rate =(the number of deaths from a specified disease for a specified period of time)/(the number of individuals diagnosed with the same disease during that
INTRODUCTION Spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage is the main type of cerebral hemorrhage, the second most common cause of stroke after the ischemic stroke (1). Its incidence increases with age, with people over 85 years having up to 10 times the risk of having a brain hemorrhage compared to those between 45 and 54 years (2). With increasing of life expectancy, an increase in the incidence of stroke is likely to occur, particularly in developing countries such as those from Latin America (3,4). Although the incidence of stroke in developed countries has reduced by 42% over the past four decades, this reduction is most likely due to decrease in the incidence of the ischemic form (1), so that a recent meta-analysis failed to demonstrate changes in the incidence of cerebral hemorrhage between 1980 and 2006 (5). The overall incidence of cerebral hemorrhage in this study was 24.6 per 100,000 people per year (19.7-30.7, 95% CI), but data from Latin America were limited.
The emergence of lifespan perspective is due to increased average life expectancy and the healthier elderly. In twentieth century, the better nutrition, sanitation, and more knowledge about medicine have increased the average life expectancy much more than before. According to the textbook, average expectancy was 50 years old back in 1900. Today, it has increased to 78.5 in United States, and it is even higher in other countries. In fact, there is chance that it could reach 84 by 2050.