During the process, two molecules of ATP, and of pyruvic acid and 2 electron carrying molecules of NADH are created. It can also happen with or without oxygen. 2. The Krebs cycle - It starts when 2 molecules from the 3 carbon sugar made in glycolysis are created into a different compound. It is a central metabolic pathway with aerobic organisms that consists of a series of 9 reactions that ocur in mitochondrion.
The products of this stage are passed down into the next stages. The 2 molecules of pyruvate are passed down to the oxidation of pyruvate, and NADH will be used for the electron transport chain. The rest of the products, 4 ATP, ADP, and P, are used where needed in the cell. After glycolysis occurs, oxidation of pyruvate takes places in the mitochondrial matrix. During this stage,
The wavelength of the absorption maximum for the chlorophylls are red and blue. The wavelengths of absorption maximum for the other three carotenoids is blue-green. Shown in the graph below. The reason why plants have more than one or more pigments is because chlorophyll has a small range of light that it captures. So it needs to pair up with other pigments that captures the wavelengths of light that chlorophyll misses especially the blue spectra and another function of these other pigments is to protect the leave from UV damage, an example for this kind of pigment is Xanthophyll.
photosynthesis and cellular respiration are extremely important in the cycle of energy to sustain life simply because nutrients would not metabolize in a productive manner. Both have numerous stages in which the process of energy occurs, and relationships with organelles located in the eukaryotic cell. Photosynthesis is a process by which green plant and other organism manufacture their food using sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water while cellular respiration is the oxidation of organic compounds that occurs within cells, producing energy for cellular processes. Photosynthesis occurs within organelles called chloroplasts. These organelles can absorb light, and are located inside of leaves.
The nucleophilic attack pushes the carbonyl electrons onto the carbonyl oxygen, which forms a short-lived intermediate. The third step is where the oxyanion electrons reform the bond with the aromatic amino acid. Then the bond between the carboxyl-terminus of the amino acid and the n-terminus of the residue is cleaved and its electrons are used to take out the hydrogen of the nitrogen on the Histidine 57. The c-terminal side of the polypeptide is free to dissociate form the active site. Step four is basically just where water can now enter and bind to the active site through hydrogen bonding, which is between the hydrogen atoms of water and the Histidine-57 nitrogen.
As oxygen was a visible product, we counted the oxygen bubbles made when we moved the source of light. Hypothesis: Plants need light to photosynthesize. In this experiment, the light intensity is changed by changing the distance of the source of light closer or further away from the elodea, so theoretically, when the intensity becomes stronger due to the light source being closer to the Elodea, the rate of photosynthesis should increase and
Advanced Biology Photosynthesis Lab Report By Cheryl G11 Introduction & Background Photosynthesis is the process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy. It occurs within each chloroplast in most of the green plants, and Carbon dioxide is one of the main components of this process. Plants use photosynthesis to produce their own food (glucose), some water and the oxygen that we need. The overall balanced equation is: 12 H2O+ 6 CO2 → 6 H2O+ C6H12O6 + 6 O2 Sunlight energy Where: CO2 = carbon dioxide H2O = water Light energy is required C6H12O6 = glucose O2 = oxygen Purpose Through this experiment, we want
Glycogen phosphorylase manages to use phosphate to catalyze glycogen breakdown by employing the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). This coenzyme forms a Schiff base intermediate with a lysine residue of the enzyme. The 5' phosphate of PLP act as a proton donor and then as a proton acceptor (acid-base catalyst). Orthophosphate acts to donate a proton to carbon 4 of the glycogen chain and simultaneously acquire a proton from PLP. The carbonium ion thus created is attacked by orthophosphate to form alpha-glucose-1-phosphate.
3.8 Catalytic reduction of potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) The electron transfer reaction between hexacyanoferrate (III) and sodium borohydride results in the formation of hexacyanoferrate (II) ion and dihydrogen borate ion and this reaction is strongly catalyzed by AuNPs. The redox reaction is described as BH4- + 8 [Fe (CN)6]3-