Emerging late in 1960’s as a new strategy for textual analysis, deconstruction captivated the concentration of critical theories. What is deconstruction? In A Handbook to Literary Research deconstruction is defined as "a form of textual practice derived from the work of the French philosopher Jacques Derrida which aims to demonstrate the inherent instability of both language and meaning" (131). Derrida began formulating his theories on deconstruction by critiquing Ferdinand de Saussure’s Course in General Linguistics. The ideas of Saussure concerning language formed the theories of structuralism from which Derrida borrowed as a key for his deconstruction method.
In Joe L. Kincheloe’s chapter on “Critical Constructivism” (2005) he argues that teachers and students aren’t challenged in their profession, liberal arts, and science. He supports that critical constructivism goes hand and hand with learning because it’s concerned about research, the practice of teaching, and its connection. He argues “knowers” construct the known and that what everyone else internalizes as truth. The places we come from shape our ideas of the world and our understanding. Collectively peoples social, historical, and cultural knowledge shapes who they are.
Deconstructivism is basically a development of postmodern architecture it is influenced by the theory of deconstruction, which a French philosopher Jacques Derrida developed a semiotic analysis. The main aim of this paper is to study how deconstructivist architects find unfamiliar solutions to problems. This paper based on research illustrates how deconstruction represents a complex response to a variety of theoretical and philosophical movement of the 20th century furthermore exploring more ways of designing, braking a boundary that have been guiding architects for a long time “FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION”.to re-examine architecture’s role in the spaces it contained, and to come up with new innovative ideas of creating new forms of structures.
He is caught all through the novel between the binaries of blackness and whiteness. The ending of the novel shows Christmas ' mortal failure to mark, to author himself. It is left to his community to blacken his face as it lynches him. The poststructuralist dilemma of language is once again foregrounded in terms of a human catastrophe replete with racial overtones. The condition that language represents what it cannot present; is what draws together incest and
Faulkner’s beliefs go farther to demonstrate how unreliable and the separating nature of language; meanwhile Beckett would agree with the quote that even the meaningless word protects the individual from isolation, keeping them strongly planted in routine and the boredom of living. Faulkner would strongly disagree with the idea the language connects. In As I Lay Dying the character central to
Both Western philosopher Ferdinand de Saussure and Ludwig Wittgenstein have rejected the simplistic notion of the essence in explaining the nature of language, and suggest the similarities between languages are merely one side of the linguistic phenomenon. In this paper, I will first identify and discuss the philosophical positions of Saussure and Wittgenstein on the linguistic theory. Secondly, by articulating the ontology of linguistics that is embedded in their view of language, I will evaluate these two linguists theories in a pragmatic manner and conclude that Anti-essentialism provides better sufficient evidence for uncovering the nature of language. In Ferdinand de Saussure’s most influential work, Course in General
Critical Discourse Analysis regards language as a social practice (Wodak & Meyer, 2001, p. 2). It is a form of sociolinguistics. It considers the context of language use to be crucial (Wodak & Meyer, 2001, p. 2). As mentioned in the above paragraph that synthetic personalisation is not necessarily used in adverts only but in any text that has the function to persuade; so does Critical Discourse Analysis. It considers political, gender, institutional and also media discourses.
As he claimed: “Perhaps it is time to study discourses not only in terms of their expressive value or formal transformations but according to their modes of existence. The modes of circulation, valorization, attribution, and appropriation of discourses vary with each culture and are modified within each. The manner in which they are articulated according to social relationships can be more readily understood, I believe, in the activity of the author function and in its modifications than in the themes or concepts that discourses set in motion.” In celebrating the birth of discourse, Barthes claimed that the contemporary notion of the language is “neither an instrument nor a vehicle: it is a structure". According to him, “it is language which speaks, not the author: “to write is to reach, through a preexisting impersonality — never to be confused with the castrating objectivity of the realistic novelist — that point where language alone acts, “performs,” and not
With the use of interior monologue, Faulkner developed the method of “stream of consciousness” (Hathcock, “William Faulkner”). Faulkner uses stream of consciousness to narrate the degradation and downfall of the Compson family. The Sound and the Fury is divided into four sections each told through a different viewpoint. The first chapter is narrated through the understanding of Benjy who has no sense of time. The next chapter is told through the thoughts of Quentin who in contrast to Benjy obsesses over time.
New Criticism rejected the importance of cultural and historical context of a text and focused on the merits of a literary work which were supposed to exist independently from both its intended audience and the author’s intentions. While New Critics conceived of a literary work as a world-in-itself with intrinsic values to be interpreted just by intrinsic criteria and free from extrinsic relations to the author or the environing world, the New Historicists’ attempts to determine the extrinsic factors such as the literary and non-literary texts read by the author of a given text are directed at exploring the relationship between a text and its attendant circumstances, cultural, social, political, etc, which brought the literary work into being. In other words, since a literary text is a social and cultural construct shaped by more than one consciousness, the best way to appreciate it is through the culture and society that propagated it. New Historicism also rejects the privileging of canonical works by the New Criticism as well as the Structuralism and considers marginal, fragmentary and seemingly insignificant texts worth reading because it views texts as part of a variegated, and