Physics and Engineering 2 Labs Laboratory Report Lab 10: Basic Optics Aleksei Kim Aibat Zhakeyev Alisher Urazbekov Experiment 1: Reflection Abstract: Procedure: The light source is placed on a blank sheet of paper and turned the wheel to select a single ray. In front of the ray we place the mirror on the paper. We need to see the incident and reflected rays, that is why we place the plane surface of the mirror in the path of the incident ray at an appropriate angle. On the paper, trace and label the surface of the plane mirror and the incident and reflected rays. Indicate the incoming and the outgoing rays with arrows in the appropriate directions.
This is done through the use of curved lenses and an electronic eye. This telescopes allows astronomers to be able to produce images of the celestial bodies so that further study can be completed. As time goes on, the X-ray images of stars from the telescopes give astronomers a lot of information such as the patterns and changes that may be occurring. X-rays are a form of radiation just like heat or light. They are invisible to the human eye but easily absorbed, however an X-ray telescope does not allow the X-rays to be absorbed.
The amount of refraction a light wave experiences is expressed by the difference between the angle of refraction and the angle of incidence. The light wave traveling to the boundary at an angle of incidence of 45 degrees for example will refract towards the normal because the medium it is now travelling through ( water, glass, diamond ) is more optically dense than the first medium ( air ). Below is a diagram of a light wave approaching three boundaries at an angle of 45 degrees. The medium is different in each example, causing different amounts of refraction. From the three boundaries above the light wave that refracted the most was the air to diamond boundary.
If a lens is convex or converging, it takes parallel light waves from a distant body and refracts them so that they congregate to a single point called the focal point. This light is then augmented to the focal length and this is where the image is created. At the eye piece there is then a concave glass lens to magnify this image. The main limitations of this telescope is due to the light being bent and the and the large size of the lens the image can sometimes be blurred which limits the power of the telescope. Newtonian reflecting telescope uses curved mirrors to focus the light instead of convex lenses that are used in refracting telescopes.
Telescopes are used everyday to view distant or far objects, they produce an image bigger than what can be seen with the unaided eye. To do this, telescopes must gather in a lot more light so that dull objects can be more visible and can be observed in greater detail. Refraction is due to light changing speed when moving from different mediums. Light rays travel through different substances at different speeds. The index of refraction is the speed of light that is inside of a vacuum (its maximum speed) divided by speed of light in the medium.
The transmitted wave/light will experience refraction at the boundary between media. As we observe the diagram on the right, the individual wavefronts will bend as it cross the boundary. Once the wavefront cross the boundary, it travels in a straight line, hence why refraction is known as a boundary behaviour. The diagram shows a ray drawn perpendicular to the wavefronts which represents the direction which light travels. We can see that the rays travel in a straight line inside of the two media, and bends at the boundary.
With this telescope, customers have reported that they can see the edge of Pluto on the outer edges of our solar system. That is some really strong viewing capabilities. Revolutionary SkyAlign Feature With the computerized features of this telescope, you'll be able to look directly at the planet or celestial body of your choosing. When you set up the telescope, the internal GPS will establish your position. After that, you will align the telescope by manually positioning for 3 objects in the sky.
It'll be aligned with the Earth's axis. It allows the telescope to move with the objects but keep the same field of view. It's meant for easy astrophotography. This kind of mount is best used for those who have more experience with telescopes in general. Final Thoughts The best telescope for beginners boils down to a personal choice.
This interaction can only occur when the photons energy interacts with the inner shell electrons in order to displace it . The photons energy has to be equal to or greater than the electrons binding energy it will be hitting in order for displacement to happen. Electron displacement is also known as a photoelectron (Shepard 2003). If the x-ray photons energy is fifty KeV or lower, the interaction will occur better rather than if the KeV was greater than fifty. If the KeV is greater than fifty, the photons will have too much energy and will create scatter, which could lead to the energy going through another interaction or it could just continue colliding into another electron.
Student’s Name Institution Course Name Professor’s Name Date of Submission Optics: Reflection and Refraction and Lab Report Introduction The objective of this experiment was to analyze the laws of reflection and refraction. In this experiment, the relationship between the angle of reflection, the angle of refraction, and the angle of incidence was established. If a line is normal to the surface at the point where the light beam strikes the surface, then the reflected angle is equal to the angle of incidence as shown in figure 1. It is important to note that these angles are measured relative to the normal. Figure 1: Reflection and Refraction of Light Refraction occurs when part of the beam of light incident to a surface bends as it