One of the famous British Philosopher Nick Bostorm proposed a theory that “Everything that one have ever done or will do could simply be a product of a highly-advanced computer code. Every relationship, every sentiment, every memory could have been generated by the supercomputers. ” Some Famous Theory about Virtual-Realism of the Universe : There were
Memory management Main memory is fundamental to the running of most computer systems as CPU can only load instructions from here for program to run. Main memory also referred to as Random Access Memory or RAM acts as a source data for CPU and other devices. Since main memory is volatile and can not hold data permanent, programs must be loaded and re-loaded when not in use. In relation to memory management, operating system keeps records of the part of the memory that is being used and the program that use it and decide which program to move in and out of memory and therefore assigning and freeing up of memory space. Operating system is responsible for mapping out the logical addresses and physical addresses when assigning memory space to programs.
d) Supercomputers - The fastest computers available at a particular period of time are generally the supercomputers. They are similar to mainframes but generally are reserved for single complex calculation (e.g. DNA Analysis) which require a 'huge' amount of processing power. The architecture of supercomputers vary according to the purpose they are built
Relational Database: Databases are generally used to store some data in an organized manner. Hierarchical and Network model are highly used in earlier days. But nowadays relational model is used in order to connect two files which contain common fields. One of the most effective ways of storing data is by using relational database. Edgar codd is a father of relational database, who is an oxford trained mathematician working for IBM in a San Jose laboratory.
It is the key component of the computer system, same like human brains which interpret and execute program instructions. Central Processing Unit performs the basic calculation, logical and I/O operation of the system. In the large machines, Central Processing Unit will required more than one or only one printed circuit board that can getting a best preferment. For the small workstation or personal computer, the Central Processing Unit is a single chip that we called Microprocessor. The Central Processing Unit is small and
These states are represented by binary digits known as “bits,” 1 for ON and 0 for OFF.2 Combinations of bits let us describe more complex data, which ultimately becomes the basis for a computer. For instance, a 2-bit computer has four possible bit combinations at any given time: 11, 10, 01, and 00. Every additional bit doubles the number of possible combinations and increases the computer’s ability to store and process data.3 Shrinking the size of transistors allows more to fit on a single chip, giving us more processing power per chip. However, modern transistors are reaching the size of only a few atoms.4 We will soon reach the physical limit to how small and fast a transistor can be. Gordon Moore,
Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments later assembled a five-component integrated circuit, and RCA had developed a sixteen transistor chip. It became evident that integrated circuits would eventually replace transistors and a special committee was formed in 1961 to consider its plans for computer development, thus creating the hallmark of the third generation of computers (par.1). This era of computers lasted from 1964 to 1970, according to Morley. Rather than punched cards and printouts, users communicated with third era computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which enabled the gadget to run a wide range of applications at one time with a focal program that tracked the memory. Computers for the first time became open to a mass gathering of people since they were little and less expensive than their predecessors.
The basic components of a modern digital computer are: Input Device, Output Device, and Central Processor. A Typical modern computer uses LSI Chips. 2. History or Background of Computer: Charles Babbage is called the "Grand Father" of the computer. The First mechanical computer designed by Charles Babbage was called Analytical Engine.
It receives the letter signed by glove and sends the letter to the microcontroller on the base station. B) Microcontroller 8 to 40 kB of on-chip static RAM and 32 to 512 kB of on-chip flash program memory.128 bit wide interface/accelerator enables high speed 60 MHz operation. • In-System/In-Application Programming (ISP/IAP) via on-chip boot-loader software. Single flash sector or full chip erase in 400 ms and programming of 256 bytes in 1ms. • Embedded ICE RT and Embedded Trace interfaces offer real-time debugging with the on- chip Real Monitor software and high speed tracing of instruction execution.
Today, both RISC and CISC makers are doing everything to get an edge on the opposition. REFERENCE Feb 19, 2015 - This article discusses about the RISC and CISC architecture with suitable diagrams. ... IBM 370/168 – It was introduced in the year 1970. CISC... By F Masood - 2011 There is no precise definition of what constitutes a RISC design. However ... termed Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) after the RISC philosophy came.