Although there are differences in each country, most countries regulate the concentration of the ownership by minor media companies to guarantee the publicness and variety of the press. Since the media outlets increases, in 1975, Federal Communications Commission ruled ‘newspaper-broadcast cross-ownership rules’ against cross-ownership, which bars
It is often argued that the existence of a democratic society necessitates the existence of information outlets whose duty is to provide the populace with authentic, unbiased and relevant material. Media outlets are thus the most pivotal institutions within society. The obligation of the modern media and its journalists to perform sufficiently as the "fourth estate of democracy" - that is, the vital pillar in maintaining social equality - arguably stopped being fulfilled when media became privately owned. In recent years, rhetoric has triumphed over reality and the general public seem to remain unaware. Owned by media monopolist Rupert Murdoch, popular newspaper "The Courier Mail" is perhaps one of the most biased outlets of all popular newspapers.
A media source which ignores or censors important issues and events severely damages freedom of information. Many modern tabloids, twenty four hour news channels and other mainstream media sources have increasingly been criticized for not conforming to general standards of journalistic integrity. In nations described as authoritarian by most international think-tanks and NGOs media ownership is generally something very close to the complete state control over information in direct or indirect ways. Undesirable consequences which occur due to media imperialism are: • Commercially driven ultra-powerful mass market media is primarily loyal to sponsors i.e. advertisers and government rather than to the public interest.
Alan Greenblatt, states in his article “Free Speech at Risk” that, “It should continue to fall upon the press to ensure that the standards it embraces are of the highest order of professionalism and integrity. What is required is not state control of statutory regulation. But the press must be held accountable for egregious abuses of its own privileged position within a democracy.” Most journalists strive to exercise their freedom to publish the news in a responsible and ethical manner. Although journalists are free to publish any information they desire this does not mean they cannot be exempt from liability for what they publish. If a journalist publishes false information about a person they can be sued for libel.
The Role of Independent Media and Journalism in Today’s Peace-Making and Conflict Resolution The role of media gradually increases in the present society, especially now that freedom of expression and freedom of the press displays an evidently great effect on development, democracy and discourse. Information is a powerful tool and insight has a huge impact on public discussion. Thus, views on a certain matter can be changed by access to media. Various types of media are developed to distribute knowledge worldwide. Consequently, effective media is an essential part in any culture of resolution, and it is a key for groups trying to make a change towards peace and equality.
In the U.S. the newspaper industry would consider the codes of the PCC to be a form of "prior restraint," which has been struck down almost every single occurrence in a court of law. Essentially, no one can tell the press what it can and cannot print. It essentially has the freedom to invade the privacy of whomever it wishes, whenever it wishes, and in any manner it wishes. Since there is no regulatory body in the U.S., the press has relied on court cases to set for itself its own check system based on libel and defamation cases. Rather than rely on a separate governing body to come up with a code for them, every newspaper in the nation has its own set of standards, and relies on the nationally accepted list of offenses even Supreme Court judges use for libel cases, centering on actual malice, knowledge by the reporter that the information was or probably was false, whether or not actual harm was done to the individual or individuals in question,
Creating significant and relevant content requires time and talent, and both of those things cost money. The media prefers to publish news that does not require investigation, attracts the public and makes profits. The media has opted to focus on sensationalized news with scandalous headlines that capture people’s attention. The media has left behind its task of informing and educating the public, and it just wants profits. Journalists manipulate information to make it more attractive to readers or viewers.
SPORTS JOURNALISM #INTRODUCTION Sports journalism is a form of writing that reports on sporting topics and competitions. Sports journalism is an essential element of any news media organization. While the sports department within some newspapers has been mockingly called the toy department, because sports journalists do not concern themselves with the 'serious' topics covered by the news desk, sports coverage has grown in importance as sport has grown in wealth, power, and influence. Since the 1990s, the growing importance of sport, its impact as a global business and the huge amounts of money involved in the staging of events such as the Olympic Games and football World Cups, has also attracted the attention of investigative journalists. The
PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF THE PRESS IN THE AGE OF NEW MEDIA The debate between privacy and the media is not new. The interrelation between the two has been discussed by many scholars as well as the courts across many jurisdictions. A recent US court decision valuing Hulk Hogan’s privacy over freedom of the press in the Gawker case has given a fresh stimulus to this on-going debate in the context of internet media. This decision calls for a review of the notion that privacy rights conflict with freedom of the press, especially in cases involving a celebrity or a public figure. The media, while exercising its freedom of the press, under appropriate circumstances, can publish private information of celebrities if it is newsworthy or in the public interest.