The purpose of this lab experiment is to examine different types of chemical reactions such as Decomposition reaction, Synthesis reactions, Combustion reactions, and different Chemical equations. The experiments were conducted online using Late Nite Labs.
Four types of reactions will be performed in this experiment: precipitation reactions, redox reactions, decomposition reactions, and acid base
The items that were massed were the evaporating dish, watch glass, and NaCO3. The materials were massed once before and once after being heated in the drying oven. The mass of the evaporating Dish before was 46.57 g; while after being heating was 60.15 g. The mass of the watch glass before was 57.97 g and after was 48.75g. There were two masses taken for the substance NaHCO3- one with the evaporating dish and one without, subtracted out after the lab was concluded. The mass of the substance with the dish was 48.79 g before and 62.33 g after; meanwhile, the mass of the substance without the dish was 2.22 g before and 2.18 g after. The mass of the NaHCO3 had changed after the reaction occurred along with after it was placed on the hot plate and being in the drying oven. When the reactants were in the evaporating dish with the hotplate on, the acetic acid and sodium had been chemically bonded in a combustion compound. The mass went from two different reactants to one product and two evaporated
The mineral sample was rinsed with distilled water and filtered into a volumetric flask (50 mL). (Some errors occurred at this portion of the experiment, because the funnel was too close to the flask. No solution could filter through until it was lifted. When lifted, some solution spilled.) Next 15M NH4OH “ammonium hydroxide” (4mL) was added to the volumetric flask. Then the flask was filled the rest of the way with distilled water to the mark. Similar steps were taken for the rock solution. The rock solution from the prior lab was filtered into a volumetric flask (100mL), then 15 M NH4¬OH (8mL) was added to the flask. After that, the flask was filled to the mark with distilled water. Both flasks were then swirled to combine the solution
Therefore, liquid-liquid and acid-base extraction techniques were successfully performed to separate the components of the Excedrin tablet. According to the TLC analysis results, the compounds (aspirin, acetaminophen, and caffeine) were successfully isolated from the analgesic (Excedrin tablet). In figure 1, the separation of the compound in the TLC analysis correlates with the TLC analysis in figure 2. Furthermore, Rf index calculations of the TLC analysis demonstrated that the compounds (aspirin, acetaminophen, and caffeine) were separated. The Rf calculations of aspirin in table 1 shows an Rf value of .491; however, in table 2 the Rf value of aspirin was calculated to be .784. This Rf value is the higher among the other compounds because the Rf values decreases from aspirin to caffeine; therefore, this suggests that the
Cell membranes are the semi-permeable membrane that surrounds all cells. It separates the extracellular environment from the intercellular environment. It is a phospholipid bilayer which contains various proteins, lipids and carbohydrates all serving different purposes. It is this structure which allows for the transport of nutrients, proteins and water. (Nature.com, 2014). Through extensive testing it has been found that small alcohols, specifically ethanol can increase the fluidity and membrane permeability of the phospholipid bilayer (Patra et al, 2005). The aim of the experiment was to test what effect that ethanol solution would have on the membrane
Purpose: We are using the reaction of sodium hydroxide and calcium chloride to illustrate stoichiometry by demonstrating proportions needed to cause a reaction to take place.
Background Information/Introduction: The aim of this lab is to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide by converting magnesium to magnesium oxide. As an alkali earth metal, magnesium reacts violently when heated with oxygen to produce magnesium oxide and magnesium nitride as a byproduct. In order to obtain only magnesium oxide, distilled water was added so that magnesium nitride will react and convert to magnesium hydroxide. Further heating then oxidizes all of the magnesium into magnesium oxide. After the reaction is finished, the percentage composition of each element in the product can be found and used to calculate the empirical formula, which is the lowest whole number ratio
In the round-bottom flask (100 mL), we placed p-aminobenzoic acid (1.2 g) and ethanol (12 mL). We swirled the mixture until the solid dissolved completely. We used Pasteur pipet to add concentrated sulfuric acid (1.0 mL) to the flask. We added boiling stone and assembled the reflux. Then, we did reflux for 75 minutes. After reflux, we removed the reaction mixture from the apparatus and cooled it for several minutes. We transferred the mixture to the beaker that contained water (30 mL). We cooled the mixture to room temperature and added sodium carbonate to neutralize the mixture. We added sodium carbonate until the pH of the mixture was 8. After neutralize, we collected benzocaine by vacuum filtration. We used a Buchner funnel to collect benzocaine. We used three 10 ml of water to wash the product. After the product was dry, we weighed, calculate the percent yield and determined the melting point of the product.
The acidity and vinegar, the type of vinegar we used was Kroger distilled white vinegar, and the acidity of the vinegar was 5%
In order to find the amount of a product made during a double displacement reaction, the product has to be separated from the solution. From this number of moles of precipitate can be calculated. From there the number of moles of reactants can be calculated using the mole ratios of the particular reaction that occurred. As seen in Table 5 it is shown that by finding out the number of moles of the unknown, the molar mass of the unknown can be calculated. From the found mass of the unknown compound, the mound of the original ion can be found. In all trials, some of the precipitate was lost through the filter. Therefor all values are most likely less than the actual values due to
Acids are proton donors in chemical reactions which increase the number of hydrogen ions in a solution while bases are proton acceptors in reactions which reduce the number of hydrogen ions in a solution. Therefore, an acidic solution has more hydrogen ions than a basic solution; and basic solution has more hydroxide ions than an acidic solution. Acid substances taste sour. They have a pH lower than 7 and turns blue litmus paper into red. Meanwhile, bases are slippery and taste bitter. Its pH is greater than 7 and turns red litmus paper into blue.
There are several factors which affect the rate of reaction: catalyst, reactant concentration, and temperature.1,2
The goal of the experiment is to examine how the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric acid and Sodium thiosulphate is affected by altering the concentrations. The concentration of Sodium thiosulfate will be altered by adding deionised water and decreasing the amount of Sodium thiosulphate. Once the Sodium thiosulphate has been tested several times. The effect of concentration on the rate of reaction can be examined in this experiment.
Abstract — This experiment was conducted to familiarize the students with the procedures regarding distillation—to be more precise, the separation of ethanol from an alcoholic beverage—using a distillation set-up consisting of boiling chips, a Bunsen burner, a condenser, a thermometer and several other materials. In the end, it was discovered that one may actually separate a homogeneous mixture, given that the components of said mixture differ in volatility and that they utilize a complete distillation set-up and follow laboratory safety rules and regulations.