Noam Chomsky Theory Overview- Noam Chomsky is most widely known for his cognitive language theory in grammar acquisition. He describes grammar as being somewhat innate versus learned. He proposes, “We are all born with an innate knowledge of grammar that serves as the basis for all language acquisition” (Dovey, 2015). His concept is that the brain acquires a grammar-based understanding as it first begins to process a language. Chomsky proposes that children should be exposed to the complexities of grammar at an early age to enable them to procure linguistic competence (Shaffer, 2011).
When it is taken into account in the field of language teaching, it shows how languages are learned. Behaviorist psychology had a significant effect on the teaching and learning principles of audio-lingual method. In Audiolingualism, the underlying theory of learning is behaviorist. Stimulus, response, and reinforcement are the main components of Behaviorism. When we adjust it to language learning; the stimulus is the information about foreign language, the response is student’s reaction on the presented material, and the reinforcement is natural “self-satisfaction of target language use (Richards & Rodgers, 1987).
It has been stated that any current attempt at analysis of L2 classroom interaction is very much built on the foundations of what has been achieved through discourse analysis (DA) approach (Seedhouse, 2004). The study of the relationship between language and the contexts is related to Discourse Analysis. One of the most well-known L1 classroom interaction analyses under the DA approach is Sinclair and Coulthard 's (1975) model of a three-part sequence, which is explained later in this chapter. They intended to investigate who controls discourse in the classroom, as well as to see how the roles of the speaker and listener pass from one person to another. They found out that the speaking patterns in the classrooms were highly structured and in describing the speech acts could categorize them into distinctive functions.
Gardner’s Socio-educational Model of Second Language acquisition Gardner’s Socio-educational Model of Second Language Acquisition, according to Gu (2009) is the first and most influential theory of motivation in the area of L2 motivation research. It is concerned with the role of individual differences in second language acquisition. It was developed in 1960 and has undergone a number of revisions in order to take into account new information or to more clearly describe what appear to be the major processes operating. It has its formal roots in Lambert’s social psychological model and a model proposed by Carroll (1962, as mentioned in Gardner, 1985) which was concerned with simulating the relative predictability of achievement in a second language
LANGUAGE IN MAKING; TRACING THE CHILD LANGUAGE ACQUISITION SCHEDULE Ritika Sinha MA English, MA Linguistics Assistant Professor in English, GGDSD College, Sector - 32, Chandigarh, India email@example.com ABSTRACT A child’s speech and language development exhibits a standard pattern. The mastering of language skills follows natural progression. The domain of Psycholinguistic enquiry is concerned with discovering the psychological processes by which humans acquire and use language. There are varied milestones in the normal course of development of language in children from birth to adulthood. The child is an active participant in the language learning process.
But the most common aim in language learning is communicative purposes. In contemporary language teaching there are various methods and techniques existing that aim to develop communicative competence of the learner. When developing speaking skill of the learner accuracy is usually more dominant and fluency aspect of speaking is usually considered to be developed itself by huge amount of drilling and focusing on accuracy. According to the IELTS test data for 2012, Kazakhstani IELTS academic speaking show that Kazakhstan has the mean score of 5,9, which is one of the lowest indexes among 40 countries round the world . From this brief data it is logical to suggest that there is more room for Kazakhstani English learners and instructors to work on their fluency in speaking.
Also another evidence for input hypothesis is Krashen’s statement (1989) he claimed that “We acquire vocabulary and spelling by reading”. Krahsen believes that people will learn language skill by reading texts and defined reading as an affective way for learning language specially free and voluntary reading .In his book “The Power of Reading” (2004 )Krashen claimed that those students who constantly participated in free vocabulary reading in their schools their reading comprehension will increase along with their writing style, vocabulary, spelling and their grammatical
in the past 10 years, much attention in second language learning research has been devoted to composing hypotheses and theories explaining crucial factors that may develop foreign language (FL) listening comprehension. Researchers have argued that listening comprehension ability can be taught and trained by using appropriate strategies (Chien & Wei, 1997; Chien & Kao, 2004). Research shows that learners do have their own listening strategies, and there are some differences in what they do in order to comprehend the listening text (Oxford, 1990). To be more successful listeners, Bacon (1992) maintained that listeners should employ a
In contrast, the inductive approach was identified as a rule-search or discovery-based approach (Robinson, 1996; Ellis, 2002), which involved having learners formulated rules from examples (Cowan, 2008). Inductive was known as a 'bottom up ' approach. In other words, students discovered and asked to infer grammar rules while working through exercises. At this juncture, this approach came from inductive reasoning stating that a reasoning progression proceeded from particulars to generalities (for example, rules, laws, concepts or theories) (Felder & Henriques, 1995). Actually, Inductive approach was often correlated with Direct Method and Natural Approach in English teaching, therefore, the rules of the language were supposedly acquired out of the experience of the understanding and repeating examples which had been systematically graded for difficulty and put into a clear context” (Thornburry, 2002, p.50).
Grammar is a system and structure of language. To me grammar is more than just knowing the rules and standards; it is being able to apply them in writing. Growing up I was taught all of the grammar rules through many grammar worksheets. However, my Pedagogical Grammar class gave me a new outlook on how to teach grammar. I will use strategies learned from my peers, research, experience, and my grammar class to explain how I will teach my students grammar.