The discourse evolved interaction between the teacher and his or her students in teaching and learning process. 1.7.4 Discourse Analysis According Johnstone (2008), discourse analysis is an analytical process in a relatively explicit way. The analysis can include aspects of the structure and function of language in use. 1.7.5 Textual Analysis In this study, the discourse analysis is specifically focusing on the textual analysis. According to Fairclough (1992), the interaction between the teacher and students in a classroom discourse is mainly focusing at the specific levels of organization such as in turn taking, topic selection and
Additionally, there are some kinds of discourses that normally prevail in teaching situations. It is vitally important to determine some patterns that teachers apply in their discourse which impede that teachers develop learners´ oral production which is due to the lack of a big amount of input to students. Monologic vs dialogic discourse Firstly, sometimes learners do not feel engaged in the
Discourse, from Lat. Discursus) “ movement, talk”. Arutyunov N.D. gives the following definition for discourse: "The discourse is a coherent text in conjunction with extra-linguistic, pragmatic, sociocultural, psychological and other factors, the text in the conceptual aspect; we are considered as a meaningful social action, as the components involved in the interaction of people and their mechanisms of consciousness (cognitive processes). Discourse - a speech, "immersed in life." Therefore, the term "discourse", in contrast to the term "text" does not apply to the ancient and other texts, which are due to real life can not be restored immediately.
Since the approaches discussed in the first part rely heavily on social interacting and social representations, a reflection is required on the ways in which values are negotiated and agreed upon. The discussion of sensitive matters such as gender discrimination in teacher training is a first step towards ensuring a healthy social environment within the learning group. Even in the context of the language learning discourses are socially constructed, which is something that bears an influence not only on the oral and written production of learners, but also the very social dynamic of the class. The chapter that discusses this aspect, which can be broadly referred to as the politics of language teaching, is followed by another that examines teachers’ attitudes and needs towards innovation by means of the analysis of the results of a survey conducted both in Europe and the US on how teachers value the latest methods and approaches in language teaching and on the ways in which ICT has been used in the context of TBLT. This part of the book is rounded off by two studies targeting pre service teacher students and examining their prospects of professional development.
4.3.1 Workplace Learning: The Experiences of Lecturers Engaging in Informal Learning. The main theme for the overall experience of the lecturers engaging in informal learning is workplace learning means lecturers are learning in their place of work, university. They were engaging themselves in informal learning in informal learning when they need hungry for some new knowledge, skill or experience which about their career. For example, E1 has been mentioned that he learns informally every day at his workplace when he is desired to get extra knowledge, skill and gain experience to be the professional lecturer. For me, I learn in workplace, I learn every day.
Classes where students have opportunities to communicate with each other help students effectively construct their knowledge (Brooks, 1993). So, learning is an interactive process in which the learner develops his or her own understanding by assembling facts, experiences, and practices. In addition, interaction is closely linked to successful learning as interacting with others can help students clarify the concepts, improve problem-solving, and enhance retention. Furthermore, increasing students’ opportunity to talk with one another and discuss their ideas increases their ability and to argue their opinions persuasively and respectfully (Weber et. al., 2008).
Initially, I had a narrow idea of teaching/learning English language as just about vocabulary and grammar rules. But this course has given me a wider perspective of looking at it and I have come to a realisation that the cultural aspect of learning English or any other language is the most important part that needs to be developed in a language class. As studies show that language and culture are inseparable; none of each can exist without the other. Since language is closely linked to culture, it is impossible to learn a language without its culture. Therefore, it is imperative for a teacher to have a deep understanding of the language he is teaching and be aware of the importance of its culture.
Traditionally, approaches to teaching have regarded the learner as an ‘empty vessel’, to be filled with knowledge and information about the world imparted by an expert These traditional approaches, which see learning as primarily a cognitive, internally driven process, rarely take into account learners’ linguistic and cultural worlds outside the classroom (Hall, 2012). A sociocultural perspective of learning, on the other hand, makes clear the links between individuals’ sociocultural worlds and learning, and acknowledges the crucial role these worlds play in shaping a person’s world. Despite concerns over the increasing use of digital media reducing youth participation in literacy, often fanned by moral scare stories in the media (e.g. Thompson, 2009; Beck, Ritter and Lash, 1992), it has been acknowledged that a wide range of literacy practices are occurring in most people’s everyday lives (Ivanic et al, 2007; Lunsford, 2009). Ivanic et al.
Discourse-based and Genre-based language Instructional materials Discourse-based language instructional materials Units of language which go beyond the level of sentence are what we refer to as discourse. Thus, a discourse can be a short interaction, an entire conversation, a written paragraph, a speech, and so on. And as Chomsky has observed, there is no limit to the number of possible sentences that can be generated from the grammar and lexicon of a language. Interactions and conversations are referred to as unplanned or spontaneous discourse, whereas such things as speeches, paragraphs, book chapters, and so on are called planned discourse. The idea behind discourse is coherence; that is, within a discourse, multiple sentences or propositions logically follow each other.
With that much variation with modern-day English, attention must be made by educators to how the variation has occurred. Accordingly, they must also respond in a manner that exemplifies equal learning opportunities for all classes and cultures (Boyd & Brock, 2014, p.19). Educators also acknowledge that literacy is an enhancement of the written and spoken language (Gee & Hayes, 2011, p.11). Rich-meaning literacy lessons encourage students to become engaged with all literacies; these literacies encompass the elements of the written word, visual and audio media, digital and multimedia texts (Green & Campbell, 2006, p.6). The period in time, geographical location, cultural influences and social-standing, all play an equally important role in the creation of the English language.