The cultural studies have made an impact on the translation process as a social and cultural practice, but also as a practice of diffusion and relocation of cultural goods that “allows us to situate linguistic transfer within the multiple ‘post’ realities of today: poststructuralism, postcolonialism and postmodernism.” (Simon, 1996 cited in Munday 2008: 131) Moreover, postcolonialism, as generally defined by Munday (2008: 131), is the term utilised to describe the studies of the history and culture of the former colonies and their conquerors, the opposition towards the European imperialists and the power relationships among them. Translation is closely linked to postcolonialism as both postcolonial writing and translation are influenced by relocation and both are invested with the transmission of cultural elements. This link between them “is accompanied by the argument that translation has played an active role in the colonization process and in disseminating an ideologically motivated image of colonized peoples.” (Munday, 2008: 132) Orsini and Srivastava (2013: 325) agree and state that: Bassnett and Trivedi squarely place the theory and practice of the postcolonial – as both creative and critical work – in relationship to the process of translation, which acts metaphorically and literally as a negotiation between the metropole and the periphery of literary cultures. Translation assumes a vital role in the growth of the empire as a way to aid the establishment of colonial
1), will be done for further understanding of the points and how it relates to its design. Critical regionalism was first introduced as an architectural concept by Alex Tzonis and Liliane Lefaive and later by Kenneth Frampton. According to Frampton, the strategy of critical regionalism is “to mediate the impact of universal civilisation with elements derived indirectly from the peculiarities of a particular place” (Frampton 1983: 21). The role of critical regionalism is to create a form of resistance to certain methods of architecture like “normative, universal standards, practices, forms, and technological and economic conditions” (Eggener 2002: 395). Critical regionalism is difficult to define
Centralized around the multifaceted social structures in various categories (i.e. : ethnicity, political/sports affiliations) Social identity theory illustrate the influence of self-concept in conforming to group normative behaviors. Synonymous to the underlying hypothesis of social identity theory social-identification depicts the homogeneity of crowd behavior deriving from the individual perception of common social identification. Therefore, individuals perceived in-group similarities result in the assimilation of group characteristics into one’s own identity. This assimilation according to Tajfel and Turner (2004) is an integral aspect of social influence termed ‘Referent Information Influence’, referring to the process where individuals ascribe defining in-group traits to
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Shiza Rathore Lahore School of Economics The linguistic theory is basically that the structure of a language forms or possibly limits the different ways in which an individual speaker devises different ideas of the world. The basic concept that language shapes the thinking of an individual speaker was initially formed by German philosophers J.G Herder and W.V. Humboldt. If languages forms ideas, then it also plays a vital part in moulding the attitudes of individuals. Hence, these individuals who speak different languages must have different wold views.
It is the possibility of having one’s own will within a social relationship against the will or interests of others. Power can be legitimized or de-legitimized in discourses where there are ideological fights for dominance and hegemony. DHA focus on the analysis of the language use of those in power who have the means and opportunities to improve the conditions. Discourse: DHA follows the principle of triangulation, which implies taking a whole range of imperial observation, theories, and methods as well as background information into account. Therefore, a discourse includes three constitutive elements: macro-topic-relatedness, pluri-perspectivity and argumentativity .
It has become a means of communication, discovery and self-presentation, it is undeniable that the mass-media has profound effects on the development of the thoughts and attitudes of individuals. Whether consciously or subconsciously it infiltrates our minds and alters our perceptions of how we see others. The cultivation theory developed by George Gerbner (1967) conducted research on the impact of mass media and how as humans we inadvertently are influenced by the symbols and portrayals of the media. Through this, we construct a sense of self and who we are and aren’t. It is pivotal in reaffirmation and creation of attitudes we have.
Anti-oppressive practice focuses on the structural inequalities and places the blame that service users internalize on the structures and systems themselves (Ajandi, 2018). Humanistic and social justice values and ideas shape anti-oppressive practice (Healy, 2015). They address inequalities that affect opportunities of service users, due to the interlocking of social relations and oppression (Burke & Harrison, 2002). AOP aims to identify oppressions and define ways in which social workers can attempt to become anti-oppressive, avoid discomfort, and end oppression to service users (Strega, 2007). It highlights mutual involvement between the social worker and the service user, challenging forms of oppression and inequalities (Burke & Harrison, 2002), and presents the idea that service users do not occupy a “single identity”, but instead have interlocking oppressions that work together to put clients at a social disadvantage (Strega, 2007).
In this distinction, sociolinguistics is concerned with investigating the relationships between language and society with the goal being a better understanding of the structure of language and of how languages function in communication; the equivalent goal in the sociology of language is trying to discover how social structure can be better understood through the study of language, e.g., how certain linguistic features serve to characterize particular social arrangements. Hudson (1996, p. 4) has described the difference as
Chris Baker (2000) stated that ideology constitutes the world views by which people live and experience the world, ideology forms the delighted categories and systems of representation by which social groups render the world intelligible” (p. 57). The ideology of a translation, according to Tymoczko (2003), will be a combination of the content of the source text and the various speech acts represented in the source text relevant to the source context, layered to represent the cintent, its relevance to the receptor audience, and the various speech acts of the translation itself addressing the target context, as well as resonance and discrepancies between these two ‘utterances’. Translation from one language into another has its own challenges, complications and difficulties. Many characteristics of a given language are unique to that language and cannot be found in other languages. Moreover, cultural elements of a society affect its language, As Andone (2002: page 130) states, “Languages are seen as part of the process by which identities formed.
He then proposed that the distinguishing feature of the modern society was a characteristics shift in the motivation of the individual behaviour. This classification of types provides a basis for his investigation of social evolutionary process in which behaviour has come to be increasingly dominated by goal orientated rationality and less and less by tradition, values and