Diclemente's Change Theory

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prior practices (Harris & Roussel, 2009). Lippitt's stage of sustaining change is key as successful change can habitually retrogress to outdated, former practices (Carney 2000, Cork 2005). 3.3 Prochaska and DiClemente’s Change Theory This theory propagates stages of change model and these stages consist of one constituent of the trans-theoretical model of behavior change as it integrates vital concepts from other theories. This model explains the stages of change, the progression of change and means to measure change. (Prochaska & Prochaska, 2009). This Stages of Change model was introduced and established during a research of smoking cessation and the approach has been studied and applied with various bio-psycho-social issues, including…show more content…
On the other hand, models should not be seen to signify a level of behavior that the observer is unable to imagine attaining (Bandura 2011). 3.5 The Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior The Theory of Planned Behavior started as the Theory of Reasoned Action in 1980 to study an individual's intent to engage in a behavior at a precise time and place (Fishbein and Ajzen 2010). The theory was anticipated to explain all the behaviors of individuals that can exercise self-control. The key constituent to this theory is behavioral intent, which is impacted by the outlook regarding the probability that the behavior will lead to the expected result and the subjective evaluation of the risks and rewards of that accrue (Lange et al. 2011). This theory has been successfully used to explain and predict a wide range of health intentions and behaviors including breastfeeding, smoking, drinking, substance use and health services utilization, among others. This theory positions that behavioral achievement hinge on both ability (behavioral control) and motivation (intention). It differentiates between three types of beliefs – normative, behavioral and control (Schwarzer 2008 and Lange et al. 2011). 3.6…show more content…
The theory does not take into account special factors that can have effect on change. Also, the social cognitive theory suggests that behavioral change is influenced by personal factors, attributes of the behavior itself and environmental influences. Lewin’s model makes common sense and looks normal, but the Social Cognitive Theory takes into account both internal and external environmental state of affairs. Lippitt’s Phases of Change is an expanded version of Lewin’s Three-Step Theory. Lippitt’s change theory focuses on the change agent instead of change itself. Lewin’s change model makes efforts to examine the forces (restraining or driving) that influences change. For Prochaska and DiClemente’s change theory the model is not linear but cyclical. This theory takes failures or relapses to change to the preferred behavior the first time into account. Thus, individuals that might take failures or relapse can revisit the contemplation phase and make plans for future actions. Self-efficacy is the most significant feature of both the social cognitive theory and the theory of planned behavior. Self-efficacy was and is described as having the assurance and confidence in one’s ability to take action and continue in the action. For the Social Cognitive Theory and the theory of planned behavior to be applied and result in successful change, Self-efficacy must be
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