Soil Liquefaction Research Paper

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It has been known that Indonesia is a high seismic activity country. During the last decade, many areas in Indonesia experienced earthquakes. Several areas hit by earthquakes in Indonesia were Nangroe Aceh Darussalam in 2004, Bengkulu in 2000 and 2007, Yogyakarta in 2006, and Padang in 2009. These earthquakes were not only resulted in the damage to the buildings, but also triggered other hazards, such as landslide, ground movement, and liquefaction. Among those hazards, liquefaction is categorized as a unique phenomenon that rarely happens. According to Kramer [1], liquefaction may happen under earthquake shaking with the minimum earthquake magnitude of 5 Mw and PGA (peak ground acceleration) value of 0.1g [1].
Since the seismic activities increased during the last decade, Several Indonesian researchers had studied the liquefaction phenomena in particular areas. They were Hakam [2], Misliniyati et al. [3], Monalisa [4], and Mase et al. [5]. Generally, those researchers focused on analyzing the liquefaction severity based on the site investigation data (based on SPT and CPT results). That study is normally called as the preliminary investigation,
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[5] conducted an experimental study of soil liquefaction by using shaking table. This study was performed to investigate the liquefaction behavior of Opak River sand under the dynamic loads. In their study, the PGA values of 0.3g, 0.35g, and 0.4g were considered in the experimental tests. These values were considered based on the seismic microzonation map of the Indonesian Seismic Design Code [10]. All dynamic loads were simulated at a constant vibration frequency of 1.6 Hz for 32 seconds. Based on their study, all applied loads potentially triggered liquefaction. The result also showed that the excess pore water pressure ratio (ru) would become larger, if the earthquake load increased. The increase of earthquake load also potentially extended the liquefaction

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