Definition: Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is an approach to language teaching which supports the development of learners' abilities to use language fluently and meaningfully. The main function of CLT is teaching communicative competence (Richards, 2005). According to Richards (2005), communicative competence means using language for different purposes and functions, modifying language use according to settings and participants, producing and understanding different text types and continuing communication with limitations in language. Principles of CLT: There are many principles of CLT that basically focus on communication. Richards (2005) indicated that the principles of CLT are: language learning focus on real communication, learners
A person with Broca’s aphasia may comprehend speech, particularly when the grammatical structure of the spoken language is simple. However they find it harder to understand sentences with more complex grammatical construct. Individuals with this type of aphasia can read; however they lack the ability to write. Broca’s aphasia results from injury to speech and language brain areas such the left hemisphere inferior frontal gyrus, among others. Such damage is often a result of stroke but may also occur due to brain trauma.
Not only by exposing them to the language they will speak, read and write the English language correctly, students must learn and understand the meaning of words. Vocabulary words help any English language learner communicate effectively with any other person. According to Wilkins (1972), “Vocabulary is central to English language teaching because, without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas.” On the other hand, many teachers recognize the importance of teaching vocabulary and they must emphasize it daily in their lessons. Among many skills, vocabulary in context is one of the most commonly used. To aid vocabulary in context, the use of a Card-file among other strategies may enrich the student’s experience and understanding of what they speak, read, and
When it is taken into account in the field of language teaching, it shows how languages are learned. Behaviorist psychology had a significant effect on the teaching and learning principles of audio-lingual method. In Audiolingualism, the underlying theory of learning is behaviorist. Stimulus, response, and reinforcement are the main components of Behaviorism. When we adjust it to language learning; the stimulus is the information about foreign language, the response is student’s reaction on the presented material, and the reinforcement is natural “self-satisfaction of target language use (Richards & Rodgers, 1987).
Another weakness of the fMRI is results can be confusing to interpret. Certain areas of the brain are thought to be associated with different functions. For example, the basal ganglia is responsible for motor functions but studies have shown the basal ganglia is associated with a subset of figurative language (Speedie, Wertman, T’air, & Heilman, 1993). Shibata et al. (2007) mentioned that due to the poor temporal resolution of fMRIs, it is difficult to interpret if metaphor processing starts with validating semantic deviation followed by semantic coherence or if the processes are performed concurrently.
Alphabet knowledge instruction correlates to strategic knowledge and the learners' ability to apply their phonological awareness. Researchers believe that, students' knowledge of letter sounds and names is the best way
Aural means related to sense of hearing and oral related to verbal communication. Surely when the student is getting better in both listening and speaking they will reach communicative competence. Communicative competence refers to the level of language learning that enables language users to convey their message to others and to understand others’ messages within specific context (Hymes, 1972). Of course to reach this competence, both listening and speaking improvement is really needed. The Aural-Oral approach is very effective to be implemented in English Language Teaching in case to build communicative competence of student.
Thus, the ability in speaking skill is a crucial and important part of second language learning and teaching process. The mastery of speaking skill in the English language is a priority for many second language or foreign language students. Even though periods of focusing on language form and enhance vocabulary are important in English language learning, but developing the students’ ability to really communicate with English in the classroom are the main goal of an English language teaching. At the end of the study, the students should be able to communicate effectively in English for study, work, and leisure outside the classroom. Therefore, it is essential that English teachers pay great attention in teaching speaking to the students.
Carney (1990) defined language as a set of a new specified vocal symbol that help the human beings to communicate with others. As we all know, being able to communicate effectively is the most important of all life skills. Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one place to another. Developing students’ communication skills can help all aspects or their life. The ability to communicate information accurately, clearly and as intended is a vital life skill and something that should not be overlooked.