Communication theory is a driving force behind instructional design. Instruction is designed so that its objectives can be properly communicated and received by the learner. Both the learner and the designer receive feedback about the instructional process. System theory System theory is an inter-disciplinary theory which consist a set of concept, construct, facts and terms which describe and explain the characteristics and phenomena affecting with any system. Thinking instructional design as a concept of system or ‘a set of interrelated and interacting parts that work together toward some common goal’ (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p. 24) Instructional designer should be aware of other system discipline.
How people process and store data is essential during the time spent learning. Blueprint - An inner learning structure. New data is contrasted with existing psychological structures. Construction might be consolidated, stretched out or adjusted to suit new data. The information frameworks of psychological structures are effectively developed by learners in view of previous subjective structures on account of learning dynamic digestion and convenience of new data to existing intellectual structures however in the event of inspiring learners to set their own particular objectives and propel themselves to learn.
Learning strategies represent the behavior and thoughts, which occupies a student during learning. Learning strategies are the techniques used by students to test the new material to develop, organize and / or to understand and influence self-motivation and feelings. The use of mnemonic devices can be seen as one type of learning strategy. Learning strategies can be divided into several categories as under: - 1. Rehearsal strategies (For example, repeat items in a list, highlight the text of an article) Uses repeated practice to learn information.
According to Patterson in her article, “Constructivists believe that prior knowledge impacts the learning process. In trying to solve novel problems, perceptual or conceptual similarities between existing knowledge and a new problem can remind people of what they already know. This is often one's first approach towards solving novel problems. Information not connected with a learner's prior experiences will be quickly forgotten. In short, the learner must actively construct new information into his or her existing mental framework for meaningful learning to occur.” (K, Patterson 1) Cognitivist tend to try and make sure that whatever they are taught that they can connect it to the existing knowledge they have already.
Teaching assistant can explain what to do if children can’t read a word, or don’t understand a word: They should teach them to break words down, look for little words inside big words, look for base or root words, prefixes, or suffixes etc; to keep reading or rereading to see if they can get a sense of the definition from the text. Explaining and clarifying should lead to better understanding and gaining confidence in order to better literacy
So with these fears in mind, my goals are to practice creating lesson plans that include differentiation for students with special needs and to learn more about the identification process through observation and interviews. Conclusion In conclusion, after determining my own philosophy of special education I am better equipped to meet the needs of students with disabilities. Informed by this course, laws related to special education, and own beliefs, I have created an ideal classroom plan. I am also more aware of comfort level and fears in regard to special education. My goals for the future are to improve my ability to differentiate lessons and my ability identify students with special needs.
Metacognition regulates thinking and learning (Brown 1978; Nelson, 1996). There are three essential skills: planning, monitoring, and evaluating. Metacognition involves choosing the best way to approach a learning task. Students with good metacognitive skills set goals, organize their activities, select among various approaches to learning, and change strategies if needed. Metacognitive practices help students become aware of their strengths and weaknesses as learners, writers, readers,
There are various strategies that can be used for the purpose of supporting memory and recall. These strategies can be used for the purpose of introducing new ideas in ways that shall stick and avail a palette for the learners to use as they work on expanding further their apprehension of the concepts. Critical thinking is integral especially for students and teachers should search for ways of creating an environment that fosters critical thinking. The paper shall describe the strategies for supporting recall and memory and the importance of critical thinking. 1.