It is also important to develop speaking and listening skills together because most of the time in real life these skills are needed at the same time. In addition to speaking, teachers can ask students practice writing a topic related to the listening. Thus, combining those skills will help prepare students for listening situations in real life where several skills often need to be used simultaneously. Harmer (2007) suggests “live listening” can be applied for listening lesson instead of using audio material story-telling, interviews, and conversations. Adding to that, Doff mentions that “using English for chatting to the class, for giving instructions and explanations” will provide students with very useful listening practice.
Suggestions for supporting strategies that can students improve literacy and oral language skills can be providing individual support to develop links between reading experiences and writing tasks, encourage and asset students with writing, fixing all errors putting all punctuation in and reading outlook what has been written to see if it makes sense. For education to be a listener and reading support for the student so they have someone to guide them. Resources that can be used to improve student’s literacy and oral language can be using selective texts made for reading and writing for supporting independently and with an educator, using materials such as games, books, DVDs and movies getting students thinking flowing but having fun at the same, Using Mind maps as a visual
3. Literature review Learning to read in a foreign language is surely a demanding task. “It implies interaction between the reader and the text, a degree of knowledge of the world and determined topics, some knowledge of the target language and also the interpretation of the writer’s message which can vary from reader to reader.” (Fuenzalida, 2010, p. 4) “In the reading process, the reader is an active participant, constructing meaning from clues found in printed text.” (Shafiei Ebrahimi, 2012, p. 195) In other words, the active role of the reader constructs the meaning from the text. In the history of research, it has been agreed that reading is a very complex process that involves different factors which interact with one another. When it comes to EFL students, the difficulty of reading becomes even more complicated.
It means that a paragraph needs a reasonable organization or sequence. Therefore the students need to organize their ideas into good paragraph or readable. In order to do it, the students can organize their ideas by identifying the topic and give the descriptions about the topic. Third, students found difficulties in grammar. Grammatical problem will influence on how words are put together to form the correct sentences or meaningful.
Ningtas (2015) mentioned that in prediction phase students are encouraged to use context clues and set up the purpose of reading. Moreover, prediction serves as a way for the students to involve in the text and develop interested in the text. 2.8.4 Promote active comprehension Directed reading thinking activity promotes active comprehension by encouraging students to think critically about the text. This strategy is carried out in different phases. Lowe (2006) stated DRTA as a metacognition strategy that teaches students to set a purpose for reading as they develop their thinking processes.
Spelling and handwriting are the basic components of transcription that has a key significance in writing developmental processes. At the early stages of writing development they are the basic skills, enabling transcription of the ideas into written text. With practice spelling and handwriting become automatic. Handwriting also contributes to the compositional fluency and quality of the writer. Transcription skills are also essential for reading.
Individuals read to gain information, to review given information, to enhance knowledge in a particular field or read for pleasure and enjoyment. The purpose of reading determines the appropriate approach to reading. Reading is an interactive process that goes on between the reader and the text. Readers should have cognitive skills and strategic competence
Therefore, good writers should know how to link sentences together in a logical and organized way. Coherence and organization in writing are two crucial factors to achieve a comprehensible writing and it can be achieved by using a good writer's knowledge of vocabulary and grammar. The same idea can be applied to the translation process because both writing and translating require good knowledge of vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, grammar, etc. and give students more time to prepare, express their ideas and eliminate so the mistakes ( in contrast to speaking) either in their mother tongue or in the foreign
With all this conflicts we’re still searching for ways to teach pronunciation. Many researchers suggest to use dialogues during pronunciation, and not just reading them, giving students time to think how to say the words in the context. Another way is called shadow reading. In this activity learner reads along with a competent reader (Scrivener, 2005). Using and saying the word in the context (in its natural place) and letting the learners to repeat is a useful way as well.
Reading Reading skills are developed as well as the receptive language through this kind of drills. They provide material for further discussion and analysis. Pre-reading and after reading activities are given to create interest and help the understanding of the