This article mainly focuses on the language transfer and fossilization, while also discussing the way in which error analysis and error correction can be improved through understanding of the concept of interlanguage. Moreover, native speaker norms, as well as international varieties of English are also discussed in this research. I believe that the research conducted by Nickel is a great addition to this bibliography because it allows some insight into the significance of the interlanguage phenomenon and helps to gain better understanding of the way in which it affects L2 learning and how it is perceived by others. Moreover, it helps to speculate about where it stands in regard to other varieties of English language and mentions a few instances in which interlanguages became institutionalized by people in certain countries. Rose, H., & Galloway, N. (2017).
And the repetitive narration of a same incident may suggest the narrator share the same interpretation with a character, which makes this interpretation more convincible. The maxim of quality applies to both characters and narrators in literature discourse. Sometimes different interpretation could occur due to the different amount of information accessed by characters and narrators. And an omniscient narrator could provide better
Dillon and McKenzie (1998) study and found that the most important factors that should be (passive voice provide more detail)analyzed for better listening are receiver apprehension, willingness to communicate, and readiness to listen, in addition to improving culture competence. To achieve intercultural skills is to avoid generalizations about other cultures, unless they are completely familiar. When listening is perceived to be required, the quality and intensity of a person is mediated by their attitude toward the concepts of listening competence and performance (Imhof & Janusik, 2006). Culture forms an individual’s worldview, and is especially pronounced when intercultural communication is attempted. To take into account the effects of listening, it is important to consider the speaker and the listener.
On the other hand, where context support is not accessible, as an account of displaced reference, the language user needs to ensure that all the vital presuppositions are coded inside of the message. This extra functional interest of overseeing displaced reference is one reason that the language user needs to create or exploit a noteworthy scope of syntactic assets. Therefore, Immediacy has likewise been documented to influence L2 performance in predictable ways. To be particular, it is affirmed that performing the task in the there and then condition improves L2 learners' complexity
Crutch words are words that we add into sentences in order to give ourselves more time to anticipate, or to emphasize a statement. Over time, they become instinctive verbal habit. ‘Actually’ is the appropriate example of a crutch word. It signifies that something exists in reality, but it is more often used as a way to add effectiveness to a statement.
To understand general and specific information from diverse original and adapted texts, of varying length, identifying data, opinions, arguments, implicit information and the author’s communicative intention. This criterion assesses the ability to understand the commonest and most useful texts in written communication, or literary and other texts reflecting the culture and society of the countries where the target language is spoken and studied, applying the strategies acquired and advancing in new ones such as direct inference. This criterion assesses the ability to Read with autonomy longer texts in order to consult or find information about diverse contents, to learn, for pleasure or curiosity making correct use of dictionaries and other sources of information on paper or in digital format 4. To write with a degree of autonomy diverse texts with a logical structure, using basic conventions appropriate to each genre, vocabulary appropriate to the context and the necessary elements of cohesion and coherence, in a manner which the reader can easily
In the English learning literature, the development of a positive attitude towards learning could be attributed to Integrativeness, or the genuine desire to learn a new language so that one can communicate with the members of the community who use the language as their medium of communication (Dörnyei, 1998). However, as the world has become more borderless as exemplified by the EU and the ASEAN, other attitudinal factors were conceptually included. The additions were attributed to the changing of concept from ‘English is a second language to learn’ to ‘English as an international language’(Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2009). This resulted to the addition of other attitudinal factors that include Direct contact with English speakers (attitude towards actually meeting English speakers and travelling to their countries) ; Cultural interest (appreciation of cultural products from English speaking countries conveyed by the media); Miliu (the general perception of the importance of English in the learners’ friends and family) (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2009). From the aforementioned attitudinal factors, the following hypotheses were
2.1 SPEECH ACTS There are many theories that facilitate the analysis of spoken language. Definitely, speech act is one of those theories which notice communicative purposes between speakers and listeners. This effective tool aids learners to identify and label the differences of communicative functions through utterances of interlocutors. According to the theory as pointed out by Adolphs (2008) that particular speech act can be illocutionary, the gist of an utterance that a speaker produces, and perlocutionary, the actual purpose of the saying which can be direct and indirect. For example, the question Are you with me?
In this paper, I will be discussing the versatility of mitigation markers and what forms they come in and address appropriate times when using direct and indirect forms of speech. Communicators, besides using basic speech acts need to specify and be aware of their intended purpose with every interaction. Additionally, the communicator needs to know how to go about the conversation to achieve their desired objective. Should the discussion be conducted in a minimalist manner? Or does the word choice need to be a little softer to avoid face threading acts or any negative implications stemming from your word choice?
Reflective One important factor in the understanding of how learning occurs is reflective practice. The use of reflective is to think carefully about something, by thinking carefully the understanding of individual increases. According to Oxford English Dictionary, 1992, reflective is the action of turning back or fixing the thoughts of some subject, meditation, deep or serious consideration the mode, operation or faculty by which the mind has knowledge on itself and its operations, or by which it deals received from sensation and perception. Reflection-in-Action The Reflective Practitioner of Schon (1983), reflection can be seen in two time frames. Reflection can occur during the action.