OF test is used to differentiate those organisms that utilize carbohydrates aerobically (Oxidation) such as P. aeruginosa, from those that utilize carbohydrates anaerobically (Fermentation) such as members of the Enterobacteriaaceae. The OF medium contains peptone, test carbohydrate and bromothymol blue as indicator. When carbohydrate is utilized, acids are formed which changes the colour of the medium from green to yellow
Therefore, if no sugars are present in the whipping cream, there cannot be any starch as well. Moreover, it was confirmed that soy milk does indeed contain starch. This was also hypothesized as it was assumed that since soybeans are a legume, they would contain starch. The experiment confirmed this result as when the iodine solution was added, the milk turned a dark grey colour at the top of the test tube and when it was mixed, the entire solution became a light grey colour. A blue or black tinted colour is an indicator of starch in a product, so the grey hue that the soybean milk possessed confirmed the hypothesis.
The taste, smell antimicrobial properties of these substances are derived from compounds known as phytochemicals (secondary metabolites) present in the substance that inhibit growth of bacteria (Avato et al. 2002). The presence of a benzene functional group and sulfur may be an important component of the antimicrobial mechanism (Agabalogun, L et al). Presently, approximately 80% of the world population relies on botanical derived medicines as they are considered safe, free of side effects, effective against bacterial ailments and do not pose threat of bacterial resistance (Hora and Nair.1944). In this experiment, the antimicrobial properties of the powdered forms of three widely used Indian spices: Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Indian Lilac/Neem (Azadirachta indica), Ginger (Zinhiber officinale), Asafetida (Gumm oleoresin) was further investigated.
The most common treatment for these infections, caused by Staphylococcus aureus is the antibiotics. There are many kinds of antibiotics using in the modern days, but the first kind of antibiotic being introduced for treating Staphylococcus aureus was Penicillin in 1943. This kind of antibiotic stops the formation of peptidoglycan cross-linkages that makes the bacterial cell well stronger. This eventually makes the cell wall formation and degradation become imbalanced, consequently lead to the cell to die. Other kinds of antibiotic were quick introduced for treating Staphylococcus as well.
Leukotrienes (LT) are fatty acid-derived mediators containing a conjugated triene structure. They are formed when arachidonic acid (Chapter 26) is liberated from the cell membrane of cells, as a result of cell activation by allergic or other noxious stimuli. 5-Lipoxygenase is the enzyme required for the synthesis of LTA4, which is an unstable epoxide precursor of the two subgroups of biologically important leukotrienes. LTB4 is a dihydroxy 20-carbon-atom fatty acid which is a potent pro-inflammatory chemo-attractant. The other group is the cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4).
Chapter VII ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTY Primary root canal infections are polymicrobial, typically dominated by obligatory anaerobic bacteria. The most commonly isolated microorganisms before root canal treatment include Gram-negative anaerobic rods, Gram-positive anaerobic cocci, Gram-positive anaerobic and facultative rods, Lactobacillus species and Gram-positive facultative Streptococcus species.83 The obligate anaerobes are rather easily eradicated during root canal treatment. In contrast, facultative bacteria such as non-mutans Streptococci, Enterococci, and Lactobacilli, once established, are more likely to stay alive even after chemo-mechanical instrumentation and root canal medication.84 In particular Enterococcus faecalis has gained attention
It has ability to produce melanin pigment by using various precursors of melanin in the media. I] Culture Media For primary isolation: - . For primary isolation of cryptococcus bacteriological media like blood agar, chocolate agar and Brain heart infusion agar, Cystein-heart haemoglobin agar, bird seed agar and sunflower seed agar can be used (Chander J, 2009). On Blood and brain Heart Infusion Agar-Cryptococcus grows at 370 C as buff coloured mucoid colonies. (REFERENCE) Chocolate Agar- Used for capsule demonstration.
Hydrochloric acid and IF are important to absorb vitamin B12. However, the patient who has atrophic gastritis cannot absorb vitamin B12, which is leading to vitamin B12 deficiency. The third cause is vitamin B9 deficiency (folic acid deficiency). Folic acid is important to the formation erythrocytes and reparation the damaging cells, so folic acid deficiency caused decreasing the number of healthy erythrocytes, which causes pernicious anemia. The last cause is bone marrow diseases.
Although the astaxanthin content n Haematococcus accounts to more than 2% on dry weight basis, the tough cell wail of cyst cells hinders solvent extraction and intestinal absorption of the pigment from the intact algal biomass. Methods of cell wall disruption which have been applied include mechanical breakage, chemical hydrolysis and lytic enzymes ( Okabue, RN and -ewis MJ 1983 Biotechnol.Lett 5: 731-736., Grung M, D'Souza, FML, Borowitzka M, and Jaaen Jensen S 1992, J appi Phycol 4: 165-171) either denature astaxanthin or are cumbersome and difficult to apply on a large scale. Therefore the present invention provides an alternate improved process for the extraction of carotenoids from encysted Haematococcus cells which facilitated extraction of carotenoids with out homogenisation of cells or use of lytic enzymes. Procedures currently reported for the extraction of astaxanthin from microorganisms are the
AFLATOXINS: Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus species of fungi.The name, aflatoxin, was created around 1960 after the discovery that the source of "Turkey 'X' disease" was Aspergillus flavus toxins. Aflatoxins are toxic and among the most carcinogenic substances. After entering the body aflatoxins may be metabolized by the liver to a reactive epoxide intermediate or hydrolated to become the less harmful aflatoxin M1. Although the highest concentrations are found in food crops grown and stored in the warmer areas of the world, the international trading of these important commodities ensures that aflatoxins are not only a problem for the producing nations but are also of concern for importing countries. Aflatoxins M1 and M2 are hydrolated metabolites of aflatoxins B1 and B2 and are produced when cows or other ruminants ingest feed contaminated with these