MRSA was also contracted from medical equipment such as catheters which results in urinary tract infections, blood-stream infections caused by central lines as well as pneumonia contracted from ventilators. If these equipment are then used to treat another patient then they will readily be infected. Enterococcus is a natural flora found in the intestinal tract however Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus is the third most common source of HAIs and was spread from the hands of health care works and medical equipment such as electronic rectal thermometer and hospitals beds. Clostridium difficile may cause severe diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis (swelling of the large intestine), toxic megacolon and death. The spores of Clostridium difficile are resistant to alcohol and most hospital disinfectants and are most commonly spread by the a fecal-oral route from the hands of the health care workers (usually after handling rectal thermometers) then to patients or patients environment.
• What is Chlamydia (NGU)? Chlamydia ( misspelled as clamidia, chlamidia, clamydia, clymidia, chlymidia, clamidia, chlamidia, etc.) is a common curable bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD). Chlamydia trachomatis, or simply chlamydia, is an infection caused by pathogen bacterium that can afflict the cervix in women and the urethra and rectum in both man and women. Occasionally other parts of the body (lining of the eyelid, throat and rectum) can be affected.
It is usually taken 3-4 time a day for 7-10 daysThe dosage is based on the patient m medical condition and response to treatment. It must be administered over 1 to 2 hours intravenously. Iv sites must be rotate, patient must be monitored for drug interactions, monitor blood pressure for hypotension and
These patients are at a greater risk of infection from encapsulated bacteria – i.e. Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenza serotype b (Hib) and Neisseria meningitidis. They are, thus, predisposed to infectious conditions elicited by these bacteria – e.g. : bacterial meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, and clinically significant respiratory and GIT infections.36-37 However, other types of infections may be due to Gram negative bacteria such as, Capnocytophaga canimorsus and the malaria parasite P. falciparum.36The incidence of post-splenectomy infections is 0.5% with 50% mortality; with children enduring severe infections. Literature reveals that the incidence of infections is higher in the 2 years following the surgery, especially from pneumococcal infections.
Bacteremia with genus Pseudomonas will even cause really low blood pressure, called as hemodynamic shock, which could cause failure of various organs like heart, kidneys, and liver. Infection of the lungs is term pneumonia. Symptoms embrace fever, cough with or while not mucus production, problem respiratory. Genus Pseudomonas infects the skin; it most frequently affects the hair follicles. This is often known as redness.
The miasma theory is that disease was caused by “the presence in the air of a miasma, a poisonous vapour in which were suspended particles of decaying matter that was characterized by its foul smell” (Science Museum, n.d.). It had been around since the Middle Ages and was thought to be the cause of infectious diseases. Scientists like John Snow wrote about what he observed which was that the miasma theory was false. Pasteur did an experiment and determined that it was bacteria that grows from the outside (5 things Louis Pasteur did, 2015). Pasteur went on to discover that there were bacteria getting into wounds and even though some doctors rebuked his ideas, they tried them.
It was a disease caused by the Variola virus both type major and minor. It was spread through means of contact such as airborne,bloodborne, and foodborne . Since it was a virus it hacked cells of the body and and reproduced in host cells giving the body terrible effects and symptoms such as permanent red scars/spots , vomiting, fever and colds. It can be tested and confirmed through the use of an electron microscope and through physical findings. .
Primary infection occurs in epithelial cells leading to a skin rash and fever as a phenotype. When virions spread to adjacent sensory neurons, a lifelong infection is established (Owen, Crump, & Graham, 2015). Both primary and secondary diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality but thanks to advances in diagnostic and the production of vaccines, it is possible to decrease their burden (Gershon, 2013). 1.1 Varicella: Varicella (chickenpox), the primary infection of VZV, is characterized by cutaneous eruption typically seen in children. In adults, this primary infection is more severe and in immunocompromised patients, it can be followed by complications such as, high fever, pneumonia, encephalitis and hepatitis (Gershon et al., 2013).
Cholestatic Jaundice, Biliary Atresia Regular blood extraction should be planned to prevent children to be uncooperative in the plan of care. Nursing procedures must be explained well in order to secure the consent from blood transfusions and radiologic examinations. Conversation for possible operation and transfer eventual transfer to surgery ward should be open up. 12. Achalasia Health teachings include radiologic procedures and operation.
What is it Lupus is a chronic systemic rheumatic disease, that is, can affect any organ and / or system : joints and muscles, can damage the skin, kidney, lung and almost all organs. One of the characteristics of this disease is a disease that is very heterogeneous. It is difficult to find two patients with the same symptoms and the same patterns of disease. That complicates often it is diagnosed. The evolution of the disease develops in stages and other outbreak in which the effects of the disease forwarded.
Ebola Viruses There are many different ways to pass away, some harsher than others. In “The Hot Zone” By Richard Preston, there are a few different viruses explained to be deadly to not only humans, but other species as well. The hot zone is an area on earth that contains lethal, infectious organisms. Marburg virus, Ebola Zaire, and Sudan virus all contribute to making the hot zone so pernicious. One of the viruses mentioned in “The Hot Zone” that significantly contributes to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) is the Marburg virus disease (MARV) is rare but a severe hemorrhagic fever.
In this case, chronic respiratory tract infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa especially when the infection occurs in both either bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis. These are one of the most difficult infections that are very hard to control. These serious complications requires intensive care hospitalisation or sometimes it can be fatal. This is because it is well known that patients with either infections, often develop acute exacerbations with viral or bacterial superinfection. Exacerbations means worsening of COPD symptoms such as shortness of breath, quantity and colour of phlegm that usually typically lasts for several days.
In the laboratory, identification of an unknown bacterium is often necessary. In the lab, a random sample consisting of three different bacteria was selected. The sample contained one gram-positive, one gram-negative paracolon, and one gram-negative coliform. The purpose of the experiment is to identify each of the three species that the mixture contained. After receiving an unknown mixture, the sample was streaked for isolation onto TSA, blood agar, and MacConkey plates.
Clostridium difficile, commonly known as “C. diff”, is a gram-positive bacillus. This highly contagious, opportunistic, bacterium is found mainly in long-term care facilities (nursing homes); however, it can also be considered to be a prevalent nosocomial acquired infection. It is a capsule forming, strict anaerobe, and its growth flourishes at body temperatures (thirty-seven degrees Celsius). Clostridium difficile can also be categorized as a motile (flagella present), spore forming bacterium that is found in an individual’s normal flora of the intestine.
Several weeks to months of therapy may be required to prevent relapse. Amphotericin B should be administered intravenously under close clinical observation by medically trained personnel. It should be reserved for treatment of patients with progressive, potentially life-threatening fungal infections due to susceptible organisms. Rapid intravenous infusion has been associated with hypotension, hypokalemia, arrhythmias, and shock and should, therefore, be avoided. 7.