Listeriosis: Foodborne Infection

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Mapadimeng khomotso
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What is listeriosis?
Listeriosis is a foodborne infection caused by a motile, rod-shaped, gram-positive, and food-borne bacteria called listeria commonly found in contaminated food (D, 2004). It is most likely to infect people who have a compromised immune system, pregnant women, older people, newborn, birds, and animals and it can give rise to meningitis and encephalitis.
Listeria monocytogene discussion
It is a foodborne pathogen which can infect both humans and animals. Structurally it is rod-shaped and it falls under gram-positive bacteria since it doesn't have an outer cell membrane. It lacks spore formation capability unlike most bacterial and it can make ATP by the process of aerobic respiration should there
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Since the stomach is highly acidic by a PH range of 1 to 2 the listeria survives that acidic medium and it is passed down the small intestines with the food bolus then When it is in the intestines it targets different areas of the intestinal epithelium such as payer’s patches and intestinal villi. It targets the tip of the villi where apoptotic cells are removed or the lateral goblet cells specializing in mucus secretion. The crossing of intestinal barrier starts with the interaction of the listeria protein called internalin-A with E-cadherin which is a specific receptor of the cell. Afterward, the bacteria then enter the goblet cell to the lamona propea to the bloodstream it then secrets lysine-O toxin that makes pores on the phospholipid membrane through which ions pass in and out leading to ion imbalance of the cell which then promotes bacterial entrance by zipper mechanism by compromising cell internal processes and organelles. The excess calcium entering the cell causes ionic imbalance leading to (1) mitochondrial fragmentation (2) histone dephosphorylating (3) transcription complications and ion desumoylation. The bacteria then release LNTA and other virulence factors to rapture the membranes of the cell and it to repress gene expressions. it modifies itself and becomes resistant to immune cell response factors such as phagocytes .it also secretes ACT-A that will enhance the rapid growth of actin

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