The second effect is dehumanization. Malese (2003) defined dehumanization as “a psychological process whereby opponents view each other as less than human and thus not deserving of moral consideration.” Dehumanization is therefore the act of underrating other races so low to the point in which these people do not even deserve to be called “humans.” The third effect is the distorted worldview. In many cases, the conflicts that happened between two races
It has become a common knowledge that the colonial discourse occurs on many levels . Some of these levels might be formal (government bureaucrats), others might be literary or social (travel writers and Western journalists). However, regardless of where this discourse may occur, it is darted for the purpose of the denigration and the demonization of the “Other” to a large extent. This process of besmirching the other serves the goal of legitimizing colonialism. In an attempt to make the wiles of this discourse easily pinpointed, David Spurr’s The Rhetoric of Empire identifies twelve tropes according to which the “Other” has been delineated.
It also refers to a simultaneous attraction toward and repulsion from an object, person or action" (Young 1995: 161). Homi K. Bhabha was the one who tried to adapt this term to the colonial discourse theory. "Ambivalence is not only because of the relation between the colonized and colonizer, but also the reason for the fact that the colonized want to be equal as the colonizer. In consequence, to be equal to the colonizer, the colonized must do such state of imitation or mimicry" (Tyson, 2006:427). The term refers to the complexities of the relations between the colonized and the colonizers.
Kris Kosaka maintains that “Japan’s reputation as a nation of the group versus the individual is used as a convenient explanation for many things Western dislike about Japan”. The reason is because Western countries have independence, unlike Japan. Groupthink has been a bad influence for Japanese people to believe that group is more important than independence and a bad image of Japan from the outsiders. Japanese people need to avoid groupthink and have more independence in order to solve problems that often occur in Japan. Independence is essential to stop bullying, which is a huge problem in Japan.
1.2 Maslow theory of motivation critical analysis A few critiques assumed that it is gender orientation one-sided (Cullen and Gotell, 2002), while others have battled that it is applicable to the two genders (Coy and Kovacs-Long, 2005). Maslow (1970) expressed that our human senses are feeble to the point that they require assurance against culture, against learning and being overwhelmed by nature. In view of this Maslow is decisively in the camp of the nativists, who push the part of inherited impacts in human experience. As per (Sapir-Whorf 1956) assumption, the specific dialect we use to communicate decides the path in which we can consider about the world. At that point instructing our own particular dialect to our descendants has the impact to some extent, of setting their considerations in a scholarly point where they can imagine the world in their own particular form (Piattelli-Palmarini, 1980).
Homi K Bhabha, a contemporary postcolonial critic, employs some postcolonial notions like ‘hybridity,’ ‘unhomeliness,’ ‘creolization,’ ‘mimicry,’ and ‘ambivalence’ to depicts this relationship between the colonizer and colonized. In this research paper, an attempt has been made to identify the postcolonial problems like ‘stereotyping,’ ‘mimicry,’ ‘hybridity’ and ‘creolization’ in Selvon’s novels. The characters in Selvon novels are best example of postcoloniality, they are away from their ‘homes’ and have to accept the rules and customs of the dominant ‘white’ culture in which they find themselves ‘unhomed’. As Bhabha opines, the immigrant characters are ‘psychological refugees’ who do not know to which culture they belong, to their West Indian culture or to the British culture. They do not know which culture should be of value to them as a result of which their
"Anthropocentrism regards humans as separate from and superior to nature and holds that human life has intrinsic value while other entities (including animals, plants, mineral resources, and so on) are resources that may justifiably be exploited for the benefit of humankind". (Sarah E. Boslaugh, 2016). In Asimov 's short story, “That Thou Art Mindful of Him” shows the reader how the two Georges plan to remove human from their position of supremacy. (Asimov, 1995,” That Thou Mindful of Him”). Therefore one can conclude that the texts degrade the claims of the values of anthropocentrism.
Post-colonialism as a branch of epistemology, politics and ethics addresses the problem of submergence and loss of identity, individuality and distinctiveness of the colonized ‘other’ and his gradual acquiescence of the values of the colonizers by treating them as superior to his own and it also tries to provide some space and voice to the marginalized other or the subaltern. Globalectics is essentially concerned with the relation, tension, connection and perception that exist among different cultures and how they interact with each other and how they are related to the centre and how the apparent attire of the entire world affairs and international politics is shaped by the invisible, internal dynamics of the dialectical. Now a contrapuntal
Therefore the similarities exists on how both critiques’ perception on the image of human rights. Feminist will see human rights as the image of men and relativist will see it as the image of the West. The second argument is each critiques have its own hidden agenda. Relativist argues on the feminism that national interest is in line with the feminism (Mayer 1995a: 184), states will use feminist cause to cover the motives to attack the enemy states. While feminist argues on the relativism that the attempt of relativist to protect the diversity of culture will just promote the dominance of male which has no sympathy to the well-being of women.
‘The Shadow Lines’ depict the traumatic partition riots which took place in history, it implies the shadowiness of the border ‘lines’ of nations. To the author these are the lines which bring people together and to the contrary hold them apart, the lines which are clearly visible in perception on one hand but are abstract constructions on the other, which bane cross border humanity and perturb the lives and situations of a large number of people across it. The concept of identity is based on duo dynamics of uniformity and differential and thence the quest for national identity interrogates the constructional process of the same, that whether a nation can be a homogeneous entity at all? In the novel, the narrator recalls his past when icky notions and envy had envenomed the congruous lives of Hindus and Muslims. The narrator’s uncle, Tridib, who was an iconic figure for the narrator, whose intellect and knowledge was he smitten by, fell as a helpless dupe to the infuriating frenzy of the communal riots in 1964 and lost his life.