Aristotle claims that men are by nature social animals, and society helps men to achieve the good: happiness. People obtain positive things out of political life. For Aristotle, the state is natural: A lot of families join together and form villages and many villages form city-states. The simplest form of political communities is family, while the highest is the state. Nevertheless, Hobbes says that men are naturally individualistic and (political) society benefit to avoid war of every man against every man.
Jefferson believed in the laws of nature, meaning the natural world had certain ways of operating. Jefferson and the Founding Fathers thought that nature could produce any good man to be in power, they only had to be enlightened of the oppressions of the body. There, nature met logic and man was
Hobbes famously described non-political society, or as it has also been come to known, the State of Nature as “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” (Hobbes, 1651: 1.13). To understand this it is important to grasp the nature of man in the State of Nature. A concept central to the comprehension of this is the equality of all men; despite having different strengths, men are equal, meaning no man has superiority over another. Man’s dominant passion is described as being self-preservation, all man’s wants, and desires lead back to their want to preserve their lives. Hobbes saw this not only as a passion but a right, all men are born with the natural right to do what they need in order to preserve their own life which Hobbes calls ‘the right of nature’.
When Aristotle said “man is a political animal”, he meant that man is made to live in society because that is where he can develop his moral faculties. In The Leviathan, liberal philosopher Thomas Hobbes enunciates his political theory starting from the pessimistic conception that “man is a wolf to man”. He then concludes the necessity for a strong state, this Leviathan, in charge of the people’s security and maintaining the peace in exchange for their absolute obedience. This is what he calls the “social contract” or “convenant”. The covenant creates a real unity between men and their sovereign as both parties.
A further example can be, when the officers had come in he had become anxious, nervous and all these mad thoughts filled his head. He had thought they were on to him and were there ready to arrest him. More specifically, the way he killed the old man was by quickly putting a heavy mattress over him to suffocate him. Much less, the definition of a madman is a person is mentally ill and refers to a person who does something really fast, intensely or in a very violent way. Also, he had so much pride in killing the man, he felt no guilt whatsoever.
A ‘law of nature’ is a general rule that is discovered through reason. This law supports the claim for human self-preservation and condemns destruction of humanity. It does not need to be written down because it is natural and made known to all by mental faculty, reason or philosophy. In Leviathan, Hobbes presents, what he thinks, are the three most important laws of nature. He sees them as important because he believes that, these laws will create a state of peace, in a state where humans are constantly at war against each other.
Although his order may seem inhumane, but his intention is good. He wanted greater good for his people and thus he has no other way but to contain the spread of this virus by killing. Hence, I believed that men are fundamentally good. This is supported by Plato and Aristotle that considered men are good because they are born rational. Jean-Jacques Rousseau agreed with Aristotle that men are able to distinguish what is right and what is wrong.
Emerson, Thoreau, and Whitman viewed one’s inner being as something innocent or true. Something that wasn't tampered with by repetitious recitations of taught material or fades, but something that one is destined to be. For that fact, that these three individuals decided to branch out from the boundaries that society has in place to mold individuals, a movement known as transcendentalism was born. Transcendentalism is defined as a philosophy which states that thought and spiritual things are more real than ordinary human experience and material things. A common relation of nature to man is exemplified in each of these gentlemen’s work.
They are so self-interest that they could harm other people up to the extend of killing each other. Therefore, social contract was introduced in order for men to escape the state of nature and unites as a civil society. Hobbes argues that since men are naturally self-interested, yet rational, they will submit themselves to the Sovereign’s authority in order to be able to live in an organized and peaceful society (Hobbes, 1651). Hobbes believes that society become possible because there is a superior and powerful person to force men to
(ND) Locke’s theory about human nature states “men in the state of nature are free and equal, and at liberty to do as they wish—but only “within the bounds of the law of nature.” ” (Forde, S.) Although Locke’s philosophy is several hundred years old, his ideals are very much still relevant to our life decisions, choices, and actions today. A mayor, a professor, and a struggling couple are all perused through the lens of Locke, to determine if there is a greater good to the situations. (JS)If a mayor is given high value gifts, who benefits? The mayor has technically done nothing wrong by accepting gifts from other organizations. However; looking from the ethical standpoint, the expensive gifts can be taken as bribes for his support or as leverage