“Ars Poetica” directly contradicts this Imagist principle, yet manages to teach it at the same time. McLeish opens his poem with the phrase “a poem should be”, and continues to repeat the phrase in lines 7, 9, 15, and 17. The repetition of the word “be” evokes the image of life, emphasizing the idea that a poem is indeed a being; however, repetition, according to McLeish’s principle and the meaning of “Ars Poetica” is a conflicting literacy device within a poem. The most obvious contradiction appears in line 5, “A poem should be wordless”. If a poem “should be wordless” why repeat the phrase “a poem should be” in that very line, or at all?
On the other hand, in Sonnet 64, William Shakespeare converts the feelings he has about time, his worries and fear about what it is capable of showing to words written with ink. Poets faced their external and internal fears by giving a second meaning to concrete objects with symbolism. Poe’s use of symbolism relies heavily on
The first part will focus on Pound’s poetic principle of Imagism “Direct treatment of the "thing" whether subjective or objective.” (Pound, 1918:3) It will introduce the Imagist Movement, Pound’s definition of “Image” and how does Williams develop his own way of presenting images on the basis of Pound’s. The second part will be mainly about Pound’s second and third principles of Imagism: the economy of words and the forms of free verse. Williams’ famous Imagist poem “This Is Just to Say” will be analyzed by its language and its form. The third part will focus on how to make sense of Imagist poems. There will be a close reading of Williams work “This Is Just to Say”, and a discussion of how Imagist poems provide their readers with an aesthetic pleasure and a sense of openness for interpretation.
Russian Formalism is like any other theory and contains and object of study, a main hypothesis and certain terms connected to the theory, but somewhere there is also problems. All these will be presented in this essay. Russian Formalism's object of study has to do with distinguishing literary texts from other types of texts. The distinction is more between the difference in language, for example literary and non-literary, poetic and ordinary, and aesthetic and standard language. The main hypothesis of the Russian Formalism theory is that there is a difference between poetic or literary language from ordinary language, because of the deviation in poetic or literary language from ordinary language.
Cummings: The Technique of Immediacy by S.V. Baum caught attention to what others actually think of Cummings, away from Norman Friedman’s view. In contrast, Baum explains that each time a protest becomes necessary, several lines are wrenched from a poem by Cummings to furnish conclusive proof that his is the work of a trickster who delights in offending sense; the poetic sample offered for examination is invariably a jumble of disjointed words and scattered punctuation (104). Baum argues with Friedman’s view on how Cummings poems brings special meaning with misuse of English. Looking at this view will help question whether there is a meaning in poems with misused capitals and punctuation.
By looking at a literary journalistic text contrapuntally, intertwined histories and perspectives will be taken into account. Such a contrapuntal analysis, developed by Edward Said, can be used in interpreting and exploring literary journalistic texts, considering the perspectives of both the journalist or historian and the fabulist or the man of letters. This approach is not only helpful but also necessary in making important connections in a non-fiction novel. The contrapuntal discourse, according to Said, shows an "awareness both of the metropolitan history that is narrated and of those other histories against which (and together with which) the dominating discourse acts" (Said 51). It takes in various accounts of socio-political issues by tackling simultaneously the factual historical perspective of journalism and the literary fabulations of
For Wilson and Sperber, as well as Grice, communication is about being informed. For Grice, that means that truthfulness must be central to communication as his supermaxim of quality states: “Try to make your contribution one that is true.” Indeed, to Grice, (Wilson and Sperber do not reject that view either), false information isn’t merely bad information, it is simply not information. Where Wilson and Sperber disagree is on the importance Grice gives to truthfulness in communication. To them, what hearers expect is relevance, not truth. Similar to the principle of charity, which states that a hearer must consciously interpret a speaker 's statements in the most rational way possible, the relevance principle argues that a human’s communication system will automatically and unconsciously interpret a speaker’s statement as yielding a positive cognitive effect (meaning, adding information to the system).
Jauss establishes that drawbacks of psychology can be avoided if the literary experience of the reader is described within “objectfiable system of expectations.” This objectifiable system of expectations includes the understanding of genres, form and themes of previous works and cognizance of difference between poetic language and practical language. Jauss refers to Roman Jakobson who wanted to replace the “collective state of consciousness” by a “collective ideology” in the form of system of norms that exists for each literary work as langue and that is actualized as parole by the receiver. Mikhail K. Bakhtin points that not only language but understanding itself is
He was exiled for his unconventional thoughts. His literary theories such as dialogism, heteroglossia, and polyphony are widely used in linguistic and biblical studies. The impact of Bakhtin’s literary theories is very much felt both in the western world as well as in Asia.In his, Problems in Dostoevsky’s Poetics, Bakhtin argues that Dostoevsky’s works are polyphonic or polysubjective in which each voice is unique and on par with others. Bakhtin writes, “A plurality of independent and unmerged voices and consciousness, a genuine polyphony of fully valid voices is in fact the chief characteristic of Dostoevsky’s novels.” For Bakhtin, each voice in Dostoevsky’s novel is autonomous with “equal rights and each with its own world, combine(d) but are not merged in the unity of the event.” Thus in a polyphonic novel, many voices are combined but they remain independent. “The artistic will of polyphony is a will to
Informative translation is rendering into the target language non-literary texts, the main purpose of which is to convey a certain amount of ideas, to inform the reader. However, if the source text is of some length, its translation can be listed as literary or informative only as an approximation. A literary text may, in fact, include some parts of purely informative character. Contrariwise, informative translation may comprise some elements aimed at achieving an aesthetic