It melts at 750°C without decomposing, and the melt conducts an electric current. It dissolves readily in water, to produce an electrically conductive solution. What would be the classification of a substance, based on this information? Ans: Ionic. As mentioned in answer to question to 2b, ionic compounds have free mobile ions for conduction of electricity only in the molten state and in aqueous state.
The ions can never reach their equilibrium potentials because three ions are contributing to the membrane potential. Since equilibrium cannot be reached, an electrochemical driving force is generated which acts on the ions. It is derived by finding the difference between the membrane potential obtained and the equilibrium potential expected. The sign of the value of this force decides the direction of movement of ions. Since we have cations (positive ions), a positive value shows movement of ions outside the cell membrane and a negative value shows movement of ions inside the cell membrane.
Due to supercool, there would be very less friction and rest of the friction could be reduced by the vacuum. These generators may be able to be the future of energy. In order to constantly generate energy, the source needs to be renewable or else the conversion of energy will not take place. Hence the source of the energy should be renewable and overcome obstacles like energy leak. In our current state we use up a lot of non-renewable sources that not only harm the environment, but also harm us.
The presence of a strong electrolyte in the solution is usually indicated by the bright production of light in the bulb, whereas a weak electrolyte indicates a dimmer light production. Furthermore, ionic equilibrium is an equilibrium established between partially ionized molecules of weak electrolytes and unionized molecules in the solution (Silberbeg, 2010). In an acid dissociation
It gives electric charge by releasing or gaining an electron. This happens when two atoms contains opposite charge. Through this, the body of an athlete is bombarded with electric charges coming from the ions therefore energizing the body of the
Hydrolysis Rates of Esters Purpose Esters can be hydrolyzed to the corresponding carboxylic acid and alcohol with a decrease in the pH level as the acidic component is formed. The purpose of this experiment is to compare the hydrolysis rates of esters by monitoring the pH values of their aqueous solutions as a function of time. The esters being compared are ethyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, ethyl formate, and ethyl butanoate while the pH level can be determined by the change in color of the solution with the use of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) for the base and the universal pH indicator. The two factors that affect the rates for the hydrolysis of esters is the steric factor and the electronic factor which will serve as the determining factor of how
In this experiment, extraction was used as a separation technique to separate the acid, base, and neutral compounds. In extraction, two immiscible solvents with different polarities are used to dissolve and separate different solute components, so they form two distinct liquid layers. In this experiment, ethyl acetate, an organic solvent, and an aqueous solution, were used as the two immiscible solvents. The extraction solvent must be capable of dissolving one of the mixture components, without irreversibly reacting with it. While initially it seems as though the organic acid, base, and neutral compounds would never pass into the aqueous layer, the conjugate acid and base of the organic base and acid respectively are soluble in water.
Introduction All cells contain membranes that are selectively permeable, allowing certain things to pass into and leave out of the cell. Osmosis is the process in which water crosses membranes from regions of high water concentration to areas with low water concentration. When the concentration of the environment outside of the cell is lower than the inside of the cell, this is called a hypotonic solution. In hypotonic solutions, when water moves into the cell they burst, which is known as lysis. A hypertonic solution is when the concentration of outside the cell is higher than the inside of the cell.
First, as Doria (2010) notes, twenty to twenty-five percent of the bottled water comes directly from tap water without any form of purification through distillation of any other treatment. This means that 25 to 40 percent of the bottled water is not any different from the tap water only that it has been exposed to or has a high concentration of the chemicals used to manufacture the packaging plastics. Due to the pathetically primitive regulation of the bottled water, the manufacturers are not keen to inform the consumers of the contaminants that are present in their water. According to Warburton (1993), consumers are likely to drink bottled water containing contaminants such as E.coli, asbestos, giardia, bromate and many other industrial chemicals and pathogens. Arnold & Larsen (2006) indicate that ten water brands in the US had thirty-eight
An electric battery is a device consisting of two or more than two electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Each cell comprises of a positive terminal which is called as cathode, and a negative terminal which is called as anode. Flow of current out of the battery is accomplished by the movement of ions (present in the electrolytes) between the electrodes and terminals. Primary (single-use or "disposable") batteries are used once and discarded; the electrode materials are irreversibly changed during discharge. Alkaline batteries are common examples of disposable batteries and they are used for flashlights and a multitude of portable devices.