After years of suffering from persecution, discrimination, and institutionalized racism due to Jim Crow laws, black people all around America engaged in a social and cultural movement entitled ‘The Harlem Renaissance.’ Author Zora Neale Hurston wrote the novel Their Eyes Were Watching God, about the Harlem Renaissance while promoting feminist ideas. Although the Harlem Renaissance was a social and cultural movement, the Harlem Renaissance still promoted traditional gender roles for women, which is reflected by Nanny’s wishes for Janie and departs with Janie’s want of freedom. In the Harlem Renaissance, women were not as respected as men, especially in the arts. Looking in retrospect, many critics highly value women of color’s writing during the Harlem Renaissance because most modern critics are not phased by race or sex. Cheryl A.
This novel contains a number of autobiographical elements. Morrison has been a major writer in creating a literary language for African ,especially in resorting to fragmentary narration. All of works also show the influence of European music, fashion, traditions and customs on African nations . Morrison has created a body of work acquainted with an apparently black sensibility while drawing a reading audience from across racial boundaries. Morrison 's first novel " the bluest eye", is a novel about a victimized black girl who becomes maniac by white standards of beauty and wild about having blue eyes.
These black women are excluded from a universe of love and tenderness where the figure of man is a key element for their imprisonment in madness, silence, sexual oppression and lack of hope. Silent, desperate, and isolated, these women cannot escape a life of unfulfilled
While Achebe admitted that Heart of Darkness did have its memorably good passages and moments, he was completely resolved in his criticism of the book. He found that the hundreds and hundreds of books that were churned out in Europe and other western countries gave a stereotyped image of Africa and Africans as if to establish it as the only way to write about the continent. He felt that canonical literary books routinely represented Africa in a biased way. According to him, in such a crucial point of time, when European desire to create "the tradition of an Africa inhabited by barely recognizable humanity have taken their toll" (Achebe, Home 47), African writers must take up the responsibility to represent Africa and counter European biased and stereotyped representations. He emphasized that only the Africans can describe their own continent in the best and most realistic manner.
African Literature contains traditional oral and written literatures in Afro-Asiatic and African languages merge with the Africans works in European languages. Traditional written literature limits to a small geographic area than oral literature. Oral literature is the most characteristic of sub-Saharan cultures and it participates in the cultures of Mediterranean. In particular, they write literatures in both Hausa and Arabic languages. It creates by the scholars of Northern Nigeria and the Somali people produces a traditional literature in written form.
Pan Africanism is believed to have its origin in the struggle of the black people against enslavement and colonialism. The struggle or fight is far war back as first slave resistance on slave ships by Africans, the emergency of the spirit of “Ethiopianism” among African slaves on plantation farms in the new world, incessant African slave struggle on plantation farms in the Americas to the reverberated victory of Somerset versus Stewart judgment of 1772. However, it was not until the twentieth century that it gained momentum as a distinct political and self-liberalization movement of the black race the world over. As such, opinion varies among scholars as to whetherthe pan Africanism conference of 1900 organised by Sylvester Henry Williams marked the genesis of Pan Africanism movement. However the thrust of this paper is to establish the fact that every stage and event in Pan Africanism was timeous and not coincidental, and that a particular liberation solved the very problem at the time and finally that a strong wave of Pan Africanism is relevant for industrial decolonization of the continent.
African nations have cultural practices and understandings that are not always broadcasted to Western civilization. Olaudah Equiano shares a glimpse of his experience as an African man living through turmoil. Equiano's life and understanding show us that there is much more to African culture and history than might be believed if research is done through reading or film-watching as Africa is. African history is like a case study that requires ton of research. Thankfully, Equiano gives us a first-hand experience of African life, opening the eyes of all who read his biography.
Although slavery became illegal in 1828, Brazil continued to acquire slaves until mid-18th century. During Brazil’s history, it is estimated that over four million slaves were brought to Brazil, the largest contingent of slaves within the diaspora. The road to abolition was marked by the passing of several laws within the internal governing body. However it was only until 1888, that all forms of slavery were declared illegal and the country became a Republic in 1889 (Skidmore, p174). Slavery, as a sociocultural institution has left its mark on Brazil in various ways; African influences can be noted in the speech, culinary arts, music, dance, folklore and traditional garb of Brazilians living especially those on Brazil’s coastline.
African American literature, which has its origin in the 18th century, has helped African Americans to find their voice in a country where laws were set against them. The position of African Americans in the dominant society of the United States of America has not been an easy one. African Americans needed to find a new identity in the New World and were considered an underclass for a long time. In literature, African American writers have been telling the story of their complex experience and history. The mission to find their own voice was even more difficult for African American women who became targets of numerous insults, both during and after slavery, and were forced to be silent and to stand in the background for a long time.
TYPES OF COLONIALISM THE DEMISE OF COLONIALISM Formations and analyses of colonialism in Africa have been affected quite significantly by how the death of colonialism is understood Jean (2002). This in turn has placed on how two procedures are observed specifically, decolonization and African nationalism or resistance and the connections between the two. THE AMBIVALENCES OF COLONIAL SOCIETY The pluralist method was extensively applied by communal anthropologies to clarify several other African foreign civilizations, which were portrayed as plural civilizations in which different cultural groups and races lived in close proximity, foreign group change was credited to culture contact and acculturation Mary