Literature Review On Victimization

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Literature Review
Various researches has been conducted on the topic of peer victimization and bullying, however, this research will explore individual, peer, family and school factors that predicts peer victimization. The researcher seeks to prove that these factors are associated with the likelihood of a child being victimized at school and can be addressed to prevent the occurrence of bullying and its short and long term effects on both the victim and the perpetrator. In light of the above, the literature review will place emphasis on three areas: (a) the risk factors associated with being victimized in school, (b) the influence of other relevant factors on the likelihood of being victimized (c) methodology, design and measurement tools
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Nine databases were included in the search: Criminal Justice Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts, Proquest, Ebsco Host, Jstor, ProQuest, PsycInfo, Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, and Sociology (SAGE). The search terms used for each database were "bully" OR "bullying" OR "bullies" OR "bullied" OR "peer harassment" OR "peer victimization". In total, approximately 120 abstracts were reviewed; of these, over 80 documents screened as potentially relevant and were slated for…show more content…
The routine activities theory is a macro level perspective that explains how the changing patterns in the availability of a motivated offender, suitable target and capable guardian influences the likelihood of crime.
Application to the dependent variable peer victimization, exposure refers to how often an individual is exposed to a motivated offender and the location whereby victimization usually occurs. Proximity is determined by the students’ lifestyle for example school attendance which shapes their exposure and proximity. According to Popp 2012, the extent of social issues in the school environment is related to a student’s risk of exposure and proximity. A school that has social problems such as gangs and chronic victimization increases the risk of a student being victimized.
Opportunity theory posits that a capable guardian acts as a barrier that protects and individual from a motivated offender thereby reducing the risk of victimization (Cohen 1981). In other words in the absence of a supervisor in certain areas within the school increases a child’s risk of being

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