Literature: Literature Review (Theoretical Framework)

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Chapter 2
Literature Review (Theoretical Framework)

According to Shuttleworth (2009) “a literature review is a critical and in depth evaluation of previous research. It is a summary and synopsis of a particular area of research, allowing anybody reading the paper to establish why you are pursuing this particular research program. A good literature review expands upon the reasons behind selecting a particular research question.
In this literature review, the data will be presented using the independent and the dependent variables. The independent variables will be the Guided Discovery Approach, while the dependent variable will be Students’ Performance in Science. INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
Guided Discovery:
According to Dewey (1992) and Piaget
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Exploring and problem solving to create, integrate, and generalize knowledge,
2. Students driven, interest based activities in which the student determines the sequence and frequency, and
3. Activities to encourage integration of new knowledge into the learner’s existing knowledge base.
The first attribute of Discovery Learning is a very important one. “Through problem solving and exploring, students take on an active role to create, integrate, and generalize knowledge. Instead of receiving information through lecture or drill and practice, students create broader application for skills through activities that encourage critical thinking, experiences and problem solving.” (Bicknell- Holmes & Hoffman, 2000). “The roles of students and teacher changes in the discovery learning however it is still difficult for many teachers to accept” (Hooks, 1994).
Dewey (1997) describes learning as “actions where knowledge and ideas materialize as learners interact with other learners in an environment by doing this they build their knowledge by drawing meaningful conclusions from past experiences that is important.” According to Berding (2000) “children were motivated to actively learn and that education only served to make more learning possible. He believed that mental development was achieved through social interaction.” Piaget (1973) postulated that “from discovery comes understanding and without understanding there will be no creativity hence the individual is caught in
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In the view of constructivist, educators view constructivism as a learning theory. Learners create knowledge based on what they already understand as they make connections between new and old information. Students' prior knowledge, ideas, and experiences interact with new experiences and their interpretations of the environment around them. According to Savery & Duffy (1995) “learning how to use constructivist theories involves interactions between the content, the context, the goals of the learner and the activity of the learner.”
” Research on guided discovery learning and pure discovery learning demonstrates that students employing in guided discovery learning activities outperform students in pure discovery curricula” (Shulman & Keisler (1966), Kittel (1957), and Mayer (2004)). Constructivism is a theory of learning in which learners build knowledge in their working memory by engaging in appropriate cognitive processing of mental representations during learning.
According to Mayer

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