Iceland has so many that it is one of the most volcanic places on earth. There have been more than 150 eruptions since the 9th century. Most of the types of eruptions of fissure eruptions. Theses eruptions are when there is a crack in the earth and gas, lava, and ashes are sprayed everywhere. One of the biggest volcanoes in iceland is Kalta.
Being Arctic Tundra The Arctic Foxone of the world’s driest and coldest biomes, the Arctic tundra By Aanirudh Kheterpal is categorised as an extreme environment. The average temperature of this region, -12˚C to -6˚C, requires special adaptations in terms of thermal insulation. While the nonstop 50-60 days of summer sunlight is counterintuitive, this region also experiences 60-70 days of lightless winter, adding to the extremeness of this region. Low 15-25mm of annual rain is a concern, however, what’s more important is the year round permafrost, that is 25-100cm deep, and prevents plant growth. With prey hidden in tunnels under this permafrost, special adaptations are required in terms of hunting techniques.
7.1 General Discussion The study of Glaciozyma antarctica PI12 concerning its ability to adapt under a changing environment, especially during temperature shifts, has shown that the unicellular yeast has the ability to thrive and alters its gene expression patterns to encounter with the stress caused by the temperature shifts. Cold adapted yeast Glaciozyma antarctica PI12 in this study, referred to a yeast that was isolated from Antarctica, which able to grow at low temperatures. An in-depth overview of its characteristics and the various gene expression patterns under the thermal changes is reported in the previous chapters. In brief, a set of de novo transcriptome data was generated in order to identify all of the functional transcripts
The increase in ice capacity in East Antarctica may cancel out the melting of ice cap in other parts of Antarctica, causing little overall melting. Despite this, the instability and rapid changes of the Antarctica ice cap are generally regarded as unfavourable to the persistence of global sea
This included more than 30 changes between long glacial periods where much of the world’s temperate zones were covered by glaciers and brief warmer interglacial phases where some ice sheets retreated; much like what we are living in today (Holden, 2012). In present day, ice sheets are largely confined to Greenland, Antarctica
The increase in collisions between the substrate molecules is due to the increase in rate. Usually the rate of enzyme catalyzed reaction doubles for every ten degree rise in temperature. Increase in temperature beyond optimum level causes a sharp decline in the rate due to denaturation of the enzyme. At around 40 degrees Celsius most enzymes have an optimum temperature and when temperatures are reduced below freezing point enzymes are inactivated but they gain their catalytic properties once the temperature is increased. Figure: (www.bbc.co.uk) 2. pH – Enzymes function most effectively over a particular pH range which is quite often a narrow range.
These conditions may denature the enzyme, decreasing its rate of reaction. A conformational change to the activity site of an enzyme will cause the activity of the enzyme to decline significantly. This is because substrate a change in the conformational of the active site of an enzyme prevents the substrate from binding to the enzyme. Sodium chloride affects the charged interactions interactions between the amino acids of the enzyme, deteriorating the active site of the enzyme. However, the enzyme will only deteriorate if there is a high concentration of sodium chloride and not if S3odium chloride is simply present.
Europe is a continent that is mostly water-locked. Where there isn’t water, there’s the border between Europe and Asia. While Europe is only bigger than one continent, it contains Russia which is the biggest country in the entire world. The are many things that contribute to the physical geography of a location, some of which include the land, the water, and the climate. Europe has four main regions, each of which essentially has their own climate.
The rate increases with temperature up to the optimum temperature. The rate increases because the enzyme and substrate molecules both have more kinetic energy so collide more often and also because more molecules have sufficient energy to overcome the activation energy. Above the optimum temperature there the hydrogen bonds holding the tertiary structure of the enzyme together break, so the active site loses its specific shape and subsequently, the substrate is not complementary to the active site and cannot form an enzyme-substrate complex so the reaction cannot be
It means that as the temperature increases , the activation energy is lower thus the rate of reaction increase. So the substrate can bind to enzyme easily. After the optimum temperature , the weak bonds holding the enzyme will break thus deactivating the active site. Changes in temperature may not only affect the shape of an enzyme but it may also change