Literature Review: Causality And Remedies Of Procrastination

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1.0 Literature Review Define Procrastination In late 16th century, the word procrastination came from a Latin word pro- 'forward ' and crastinus 'belonging to tomorrow ', meaning to delay an action (Klein, E. (1971). Procrastination has been defined as the irrational tendency to delay tasks that should be completed (Lay, 1986). Other psychologists define procrastination as delaying task completion to the point of experiencing discomfort (Ellis & Knaus, 1977). Procrastination is different from waiting and delaying, as it affects one’s emotions to feel guilt and shame (Combs, 2012). To name a few things people often put off, “I will book dentist appointments later, start diet later, pay my bills later, clean later, start revision later, ……”. The problem with procrastination it could bring additional harm and undesired consequences that soon outweighed the temporary relief of putting task off. Causality and Remedies of procrastination Procrastination has been linked to variety of negative mental variables. Solomon and Rothblum (1984) found that among all possible variance, procrastination has the strongest correlation with anxiety for students. Students who experience extremely high anxiety before exams have greater tendency to delay in revision (Lay et al. 1989). Anxiety can be related to perfectionism which involves the fear of failure to meet self-induce high expectation (Stöber & Joormann, 2001). However, some researchers later found that fear of failure is

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