Colorimeter Within digital shade matching, there are many methods available and the principal issue is deciding which method performs the best. In one such experiment, digital imaging was compared to a colorimeter (Yamanel et al., 2010). These results showed again that provided the camera is calibrated properly and the light conditions are suitable, digital imaging is better than a colorimeter. In a study to compare visual shade matching and colorimeter shade matching (Li and Wang 2007), it was found that colorimeters were both more accurate and more repeatable than visual methods. Another study focused solely on the repeatability of colorimeters (Tung et al., 2002).
The in vitro evaluation of these hybrids against D6 and W2 strains of P. falciparum depicted activity in the micromolar range. Also, these hybrids exhibited high selectivity indices and low toxicity against the tested cell lines. Three compounds (7g, 8a and 8b) exhibited better antimalarial activity (IC50 = 0.019 µM to 0.033 µM) than the standard drug chloroquine (IC50 = 0.035 µM) against CQ-sensitive strain, whereas except 7a, 7b, 8c, 9a, 9b and 9e, all the compounds showed better activity than chloroquine against CQ-resistant strain. Some of the compounds showed resistance index value close to one which indicates that the antimalarial activity of these molecular hybrids are comparable between the CQ-sensitive and CQ-resistant strains of P. falciparum and hence suggesting that the CQ-resistance mechanism has little effect on the antimalarial activity of these compounds. Interestingly, all the compounds displayed better activity than pyrimethamine (>19 µM) against the CQ-resistant strain W2.
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy contribute to significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia affects 5-10% of all the pregnancies and contributes to 10-15% of maternal deaths worldwide. Estimated case fatality rate due to eclampsia is 14 times higher in developing countries compared to developed countries 1,2. Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder whose pathophysiology remains unclear. Preeclampsia is defined as a blood pressure of at least 140 mmHg systolic pressure and 90 mmHg diastolic pressure measured on two occasions 6 hours apart, accompanied by proteinuria of at least 300 mg per 24 hours, or at least 1+ on dipstick testing after 20 weeks3.
ROC curves show sensibility and specificity of a certain diagnostic tool. The sensitivity of a test is defined as the ability to positively diagnose individuals who actually have a condition or disease, while specificity is the ability to identify as healthy individuals the ones that actually do not have the disease 28. As with any diagnostic test, to achieve greater sensitivity, specificity is decreased, while having a better specificity decreases sensitivity, so the choice of cutoff should consider the clinical application 26. The relevance of skeletal maturity in dentofacial orthopedic treatment planning is widely regognized. Therefore it is clinically beneficial to identify if a Class II individual seeking orthodontic treatment is in a pre growth spurt phase.
Initial evaluations of these two techniques in clinical trials have indicated that they may improve the diagnostic performances of differentiating benign from malignant lesions and help to reduce the number of unnecessary benign thyroid biopsies [15, 16]. Strain elastography is a previous elastography technique; however, it requires manual compression by the operator and can only provide semi-quantitative images . The second type of elastography is shear-wave elastography (SWE). SWE is the latest elastographic technique with more reproducible and less operator-dependent and doesn’t rely much on external force. SWE can measure quantitative elastographic values which can be expressed in either kPa or m/s [18 -
Sprague rappaport stethoscopes tend to get mixed reviews, but pediatric stethoscope reviews are heavily in favour of this one. The MDF Sprague Rappaport is one of the most versatile stethoscopes on the market. It features adult and pediatric attachments, enabling you to diagnose all ages with the one stethoscope. Two sound channels, one for each ear, create maximum possible clarity and allow you to hear the heartbeat of your patient without any awkward maneuvering or contorting.
Short Course Therapy Standardized short course regimens are an important element of DOTS. TB Programmers using short course therapies have consistently achieved higher cure rates than those relying on longer therapies. Short course therapies are more effective for two reasons: one, they are more efficacious; and two, compliance is higher. Importantly, short course therapies also reduce relapse rates and therefore multi-drug resistance. There is strong and consistent evidence that short course therapies are also more cost-effective.
Knowledge and awareness of basic concepts in Statistics is useful even for programmers. It enables them to understand the ‘why’ in the data analysis and also be able to interpret the results. The module has been designed keeping in mind that the majority of the participants may not have studied statistics at graduate or post-graduate level. Therapeutic Area – Oncology: Another factor that can help one leapfrog her/his career in this field is the knowledge of the therapeutic area corresponding to the study project. We have picked Oncology which is one of the most extensively studied therapeutic area.
In addition, the patient's hospital stay can be reduced, with quicker rehabilitation to ambulatory status. Thus, the overall cost of treatment may be reduced by the single-stage procedure. Similar results are reported by Louis , who compared the single-stage posterior procedure (78% satisfactory results) with combined anterior/posterior lumbosacral fusions (79% satisfactory results). In addition, the introduction of transpedicular fixation devices [75, 78-84] allows a reduction in the number of fused segments, especially in cases of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. The saving of healthy segments seems to be a distinct advantage compared to the "long rod technique."