Literature Review: Craig's Social Communication Model Of Pain

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2.1 Review of the Literature
Pain is subjective unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage (Merskey & Bogduk, 1994) while Young (2005) suggests that individuals learn pain from their experiences. Craig’s Social Communication Model of Pain (2009), individuals have numerous elements that interact and create their own perception of pain such as biological, psychological and social factors. In the hospital settings, children often experience unpredictable and severe procedure-related pain that may accompany negative emotional and psychological effects (Cummings, Reid, Finley, McGrath, & Ritchie, 1996; Kazak &Kunin-Batson, 2001)McMurtry (2013) stated that needle pain in children is common. Blount et al., 2009; Inal & Kelleci, 2012b; Leahy et al., 2008; Uman, Chambers, McGrath, & Kisely 2006, the common and significant sources of pain is applying needle in medical procedures such as venipuncture and immunization. Cumming (1996) noted that children’s pain primary source is intravenous catheter insertion but Young (2005) states that placement of intravenous line is second and disease related is the most common source of pain. It’s also been said that needle related procedure in the hospital setting is the most terrifying procedure a child may encounter because it commonly results in pain and distress (Hart & Bossert, 1994).

Meanwhile, reports showed that pain does not only bring a

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