Literature Review: Definition Of Cooperative Learning In Schools

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Definition of Cooperative Learning It is important to be taken seriously and used appropriately even though the term cooperative learning is mostly heard in school buildings. Referring to Johnson, Johnson and Holubec, (1998) cooperative learning is a strategy that is used to maximize student achievement in schools; however, often times it goes without being used to its fullest potential or is used in an unsuccessful way. According to the Johnson & Johnson model, cooperative learning is an instruction that involves students working in teams to accomplish a common goal, under conditions of the elements of cooperative learning, which is positive interdependence, individual accountability, face-to-face promotive interaction, appropriate use of collaborative skills and group processing. Cooperation is working together to accomplish shared goals (Johnson & Johnson, 1989, 1999; Johnson, Johnson, & Smith, 2006). Individuals seek outcomes that are beneficial to themselves and beneficial to all other group members within cooperative situations. Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other 's learning. It may be contrasted with competitive and individualistic, whereby competitive is when the students work against each other to achieve an academic goal that only one or a few students can attain. While individualistic is when the students work by themselves to

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