Dementia is a complex disease that’s made up of many parts. There isn’t just one form of dementia, rather there are multiple different forms of dementia, each having their own set of symptoms that can be distinguished from other forms of dementia. Nonetheless, the umbrella term for dementia is an “impairment of thought and behavior that disrupt everyday life” (McCrory, PP, Ch. 17, Slide 18). Symptoms affecting dementia as a whole are the following: memory, thinking, and social abilities (McCrory, PP, Ch. 17, Slide 19). Nonetheless, it’s important to understand that a little memory loss is normal in old age. Therefore, just because you may know someone that has some memory loss doesn’t mean that they suffer from dementia. One of the clear-cut
Dementia History Dementia is a disease that brings grief to a family if it is not handled correctly. This disease gradually begins and worsens the cognitive ability over several years. In the dawn of nineteenth century, dementia was just a clinical concept. The doctors believed that dementia in aged people fluctuated within the idea that was due to the blockage in the major arteries in the brain or small strokes inside the vessels of the cerebral cortex. Recently they believe that the dementia is caused due to the mixture of both conditions.
AD progression & diagnosis The progression of Alzheimer's can be described through several main cognitive stages starting at no cognitive decline through too mild to moderate before progressing to a more severe form of the disease. The pathological process associated with AD occurs roughly 20-25 years before symptoms appear (Mullane & Williams 2013). When symptoms become predominant Alzheimer’s can be diagnosed through a standardized scale (Mini-Mental State Exam) or questionnaire (Functional Activities Questionnaire) which is used to assess cognition (Desai & Grossberg 2005). Increasingly neuroimaging such as CT, MRI or PET scans are being suggested and used as a means to screen and diagnose for Alzheimer’s (Avila 2006; Borson et al. 2013).
Dementia is a set of neurodegenerative diseases high prevalence and high personal, family and social impact. During the course of the disease, patients become more dependent on daily life activities, which can result in institutionalisation (Gerrish, and Lacey, 2010). Parallel to cognitive impairment, dementia patients also develop behavioral and psychological symptoms known as neuropsychiatric symptoms.
Alzheimer’s A Case Study Mauricio Alvarez Human Anatomy & Physiology I – Theory Galen College of Nursing Professor Kelly Washington, MA November 27, 2016 Alzheimer’s disease, is a progressive nerve cell degeneration disease that develops in mid-to-late adulthood, (65 to 80 years and beyond) affecting 5 million Americans. ("Alzheimer 's Disease Fact Sheet | National Institute on Aging," n.d.) Pathology The pathology of this disease leads to a loss of memory affecting judgement and reasoning, and movement coordination. Alois Alzheimer a German Scientist, Neurologist, Psychiatrist (1864-1915) studied a 51-year-old woman Auguste Deter who presented with progressive cognitive impairment, hallucinations and psychosocial incompetence.
A common cause of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease. People with Alzheimer’s disease can become agitated or aggressive, as the disease gets worse. The patient may become agitated, in which they become restless or worried and cannot seem to settle down. Agitation means that the person is restless or worried (1). The patient with Alzheimer’s disease can also be aggressive, in which they will lash out verbally or try to hit or hurt someone.
As Alzheimer's progresses to later stages of the disease it is common for seniors to experience agitation. Your loved one may express this agitation with physical or verbal outbursts, restlessness, yelling, pacing, shredding paper or tissue or expressing general emotional distress. Learning to prevent agitation before it occurs will help you and your loved one feel better.
Studies have shown that TBI induces the rapid accumulation of proteins in brain tissue (in the cortex) similar to those found in neurodegenerative diseases, namely AD. The primary clue that indicated a potential link between AD and TBI was the Aβ (amyloid-Beta) plaque, a hallmark of AD, which was found within days in up to 30% of patients who died from a single incident of brain trauma in a study conducted by Roberts et al. 1994. A study on a pig model conducted by Smith et al., 1999 revealed that the plaques were found mainly in the white matter with axonal pathology as well as in layer III of the cortex; although, some models did reveal some accumulation in the grey matter. Aβ is derived via the sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the β- and γ- secretase (Uryu et al., 2007).
Cognitive rehabilitation is a continous method with individualized approach that constitutes on strengths and adapt with the weakness in order to enhance a person’s ability to deal effectively with their everyday activities. It is a non-pharmacological intervention designed to improve cognition, inconsideration of mechanism of action in individual with AD.