There are different types of dementia and are described as follows: Fig 1.2 (a) different types of dementia with their percentages There are different types of dementia are Alzheimer’s, vascular, mixed, dementia with lewy’s body and frontotemporal dementia etc. and there are other types of dementia too such as AIDS dementia, Parkinson’s dementia etc. The Alzheimer’s is most common form of dementia. Let us describe the each of them in detail: Alzheimer’s dementia: Fig 1.2(b) area of brain affected and cross-section that is seen from the front in Alzheimer’s dementia. These type of dementia occurs about; this occurs due to the short-term memory loss.
This structural changes are believed to decrease acetylcholine a cranial neurotransmitter by as much of 75%, contributing to cognitive impairment. Maurer, K., & Volk, S. (1997). Body System (s) involved Alzheimer’s disease mainly affect the brain by impairing the parts of the brain that allow us to form memories, to reason, to orient ourselves. This disease spreads to parts of the brain that control
With this type of Dementia, the symptoms can be very different due to how badly the blood vessel are damaged after having the stroke. ii. In the scholarly article, Risk Factors for Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer Disease, written by Phillip B Gorelick and publish in October 2004. It mentions that Vascular Dementia have terrible effects on the brain and your cognitive abilities. iii.
According to a site that specializes in providing information about dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, states that “Dementia is a general term for loss of memory and other mental abilities severe enough to interfere with daily life. It is caused by physical changes in the brain.” (Alzheimer’s Association) Whereas Alzheimer’s is a “Type of dementia that causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior.” (Alzheimer’s Association) Generally speaking, one could imagine
Amyloidosis occurs mostly in people whose myeloma has the light chain components of immunoglobulins to form a sticky protein called amyloid, impairs the function of whichever organ it is in. The kidney damage due to myeloma is fatigue, nausea, vomiting there also could be no signs and could cause foamy urine. Hyperviscostly syndrome can cause bruising from the mouth, nose, headaches, confusion, sleepiness, and problems with feeling their limbs. A bone marrow sample is taken to see what stage you can be treated
Dementia is often incorrectly referred to as "senility" or "senile dementia," which reflects the formerly widespread but incorrect belief that serious mental decline is a normal part of aging. The condition is progressive and worsens over time; in the later stages, people with dementia become unable to carry out everyday activities and find it difficult to convey their thoughts and feelings. As the symptoms become more profound, they
However, an association between Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and brain stem gliomas have been found. Symptoms are non-specific and characteristically include a history of headaches from intracranial hypertension secondary to obstruction of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles. In addition, vomiting, nausea, visual disturbances, such as Parinaud Syndrome, auditory and balance deficits may be present as a result of pyramidal tract dysfunction. The proximity of the tectal plate to the aqueduct of Sylvius in the mesencephalon makes non-communicating hydroencephalus the most likely culprit for the increased intracranial pressure. Diagnosis of tectal plate glioma is based
Dementia is a lack of or serious decrease in cognitive abilities caused by the death of brain cells (Whitworth 2). Some physical symptoms of LBD include, motor dysfunctions such as choking, repeated falls or fainting, muscle stiffness, tremor, and stooped posture (10). LBD also has mental symptoms such as depression, hallucinations, and anxiety ( 10, 11, 43). Causes of LBD include, microscopic Lewy bodies in the cognitive and motor areas of the brain (8). LBD is incurable at the moment, and the only way to prove someone has LBD is with a brain autopsy (9).
It has shown structural differences between the brain of schizophrenics and controls. One of the major differences observed is the significant loss of grey matter (about 25%) in the frontal and temporal regions of the brain of schizophrenic patients. Considering the fact that the frontal lobe is associated with thinking, emotions, speech and the temporal lobe is associated in the perception and recognition of auditory stimuli can explain the development of psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations. MRI scans have shown enlarged ventricles in the brains of schizophrenic patients compared to normal people which is associated to the loss of brain tissue. Reveley et al (1986) compared CT scans of monozygotic twins of whom one was schizophrenic while the the other was normal and was able to observe the enlarged ventricles.
10.1 STROKE This concept was taken from module 10 “Assessment of nervous system”, Sub-topic 3 “common abnormalities and assessment findings of nervous system”. Stroke is a condition of both the nervous and cardio-vascular system. Stroke is a condition of brain damage which results due to shortage of blood supply. The blood supply to the arteries of the brain is reduced leading to brain damage. This result from shortage of blood supply and glucose supply to the brain.
The Elderly and Depression Late onset depression is, one of the primarily diagnoses treated by psychiatrist in the patients over sixty. Depression in the elderly is often chronic and debilitating and can adversely affect the quality of life of the patient. According to Casey (2011) In general depression in the elderly is more chronic and persistent than depression earlier in life and often runs a chronic remitting course. Depression often is associated with aging but isn’t a result of the normal process of aging , As a result patient’s are easily misdiagnosed with depression when they actually have other illness such as dementia , or Alzheimer’s, Other contributory diseases or chronic illnesses are cancer, stroke, diabetes, hip fractures
This paper will be looking at the pathophysiologic condition- Multiple Sclerosis(MS), specifically exploring the pathophysiological process of the disease, signs and symptoms accompanied, and treatments identified as therapies targeting the symptoms. According to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society (2016), multiple sclerosis is defined as “unpredictable, often disabling disease of the central nervous system that disrupts the flow of information within the brain, and between the brain and the body.” Although the etiology or cause of MS remains unknown, there is much research being conducted to categorize influences of many factors contributing to the onset of the disease. Borazanci et al. 2009 conclude that a mixture of genetics and environmental
Parkinson disease is a degenerative disorder of basal ganglia function that results in variable combination of tremor, rigidity, akinesia/ bradykinesia, and postural changes. The causes of Parkinson disease is unknown, but it is widely believed that most cases are caused by an interaction of environmental and genetic factors. It is a progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects movements. It is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is one of the most common neurologic disorders of older adults. The disorder is characterized by progressive destruction of the nigrostriatal pathway, with subsequent reduction in striatal concentration of dopamine.