Aural means related to sense of hearing and oral related to verbal communication. Surely when the student is getting better in both listening and speaking they will reach communicative competence. Communicative competence refers to the level of language learning that enables language users to convey their message to others and to understand others’ messages within specific context (Hymes, 1972). Of course to reach this competence, both listening and speaking improvement is really needed. The Aural-Oral approach is very effective to be implemented in English Language Teaching in case to build communicative competence of student.
However, according to the results of this research oral vocabulary plays a more significant role than alphabetic knowledge when learning to read. An efficacy study of two school-based reading intervention program has found that the Oral language program resulted in improved vocabulary and grammatical skills while the Phonology + Reading (P+R) program resulted in improved decoding skills (Bowyer-Crane, et al., 2007). This study demonstrates the use of phonology and reading improves decoding skills, which is one of the main deficits in the phonological deficit theory. As such, phonology and reading program should also be incorporated when implementing an intervention to improve reading. More recent research has introduced a self-teaching model to develop phonological decoding in children with dyslexia.
Once a child has learned a first language, the following study becomes simple because the learning abilities have been already tested. Learning new words becomes easier and creating links with already known languages helps a lot in learning of a new language. There are some disadvantages, however. Bilingual people generally know fewer words in a semantic area than the monolingual. Also verbal reactions may be slightly slower because needs a extra thinking caused by known many languages.
This is attributed to boys’ attitude towards learning a foreign language. For boys, a foreign language subject is traditionally for women (Clark, 1995); thus, creating conflict between performed masculinities and language practice (Carr & Pauwels, 2006). Foreign or second language acquisition is also known to depend on the teaching approach of the educator. Some educational experts suggest that a natural approach is the most effective way of teaching. As opposed to rote learning, where students are asked to memorize words and focus on structures and rules, the natural approach is a process of learning that focuses more on language comprehension and terminology usage so that they can be used in communication (Terrel & Krashen, 1983).
Since they must subconsciously choose words from a certain language, they gain more practice at selecting vital information over trivial details. As a result, bilinguals have the upper hand when it comes to dismissing distractions and multitasking. Almost unbelievably, there is evidence that suggests bilinguals make more rational decisions. The fact of the matter is, our natural human emotional bias is greatly diminished when using a second language. As we gain emotional distance and shift our focus on to information, we find ourselves performing more rational responses.
Students with a poor perception of their abilities may become anxious and perform less than their counterparts with higher confidence in their abilities. Moller (1993) describes learners with high anxiety as often misdirecting effort from learning to task-irrelevant concerns. Learners high in anxiety are often low in self-esteem and, as such, avoid evaluative situations. In contrast, learners with normal anxiety levels feel more confident and motivated in situations where they must be evaluated. Spain (2009) defined relevance as the connection of the instructional content to things that are meaningful to the students; the perception that instruction fulfills a personal need.
Bilingual classes bring the students closer together to better both groups, the students are able to work together to help each other understand things that they might not understand. So not only do both groups learn and work with two languages they meet new people they wouldn't have met or had class if it was not for those bilingual classes. Studies have been made to show the effects of bilingual education and how students would benefit from being in a bilingual class, “ELLs who had gotten waivers to remain in small bilingual programs were equally proficient in English and did just as well on state tests when compared with ELLs in English-only programs” (Sanchez). So bilingual education can improve the communication between ELL students
197) agree with the fact that intrinsic motivation is better that extrinsic motivation, and say that motivation generates a commitment that makes the students learn the language. They add that intrinsic motivation is present when external motives are inexistent. On the other hand extrinsic motivation is generated when the student is expecting some kind of reward after learning the language. The reward is usually observable. Intrinsic motivation is more important for learning English and achieves success.
The most helpful type of feedback on tests and homework provides specific comments about errors and specific suggestions for improvement. It also encourages students to focus their attention thoughtfully on the task rather than on getting the true answer (Bangert-Drowns; Elawar and Corno, 1985). This type of feedback may be particularly helpful to lower achieving students. Because it emphasizes that students can improve as a result of effort. Thus it can be said that formative assessment supports the expectation that all children can learn to high levels and poor performance students who has the lack of ability and therefore become discouraged and unwilling can benefit from it.