Literature Review On Innovative Language Learning

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2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Innovative Learning Model Winkel (1996) pointed out that learning is as a mental / psychic activity taking place in an active interaction with the environment, resulting in changes in knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes which are fixed and imprinted. Learning is not a transfer of knowledge but an activity that allows learners to form knowledge, construct meaning clearly and critically in the face of new phenomena and find ways to solve problems. On the other hands, Arrends, Wenitzky, and Tannenboum, (2001) mentioned that there are four things that are closely related to the learning model: (1) rational logical theory composed by its creators or developers; (2) The point of view / basis of thinking about what…show more content…
Culture must therefore be included in English learning. However, there is currently no consensus on how to introduce cultural elements in language learning. Frank further stated that one way to encourage curiosity and openness to English culture is to build a "collection" of cultural information in a variety of formats. This can include films, music, literature, online sites, and popular everyday items such as stamps, currencies, toys, musical instruments, menus, travel brochures, magazines and newspapers from English-speaking countries-or from countries depending on the student's needs and learning objectives. "However, as the world becomes increasingly interconnected with one another, we must help our students understand that today it is very important for them to enable their 'cultural antenna' to understand the culture of other countries as well as their own…show more content…
The learners need to be aware, for example, of the culturally appropriate ways to address people, express gratitude, make requests, and agree or disagree with someone. They should know that behavior and intonation patterns that are appropriate in their own speech community may be perceived differently by members of the target language. In addition, culture in language learning is more defined as understanding the meaning pragmatically associated with the cultural context of the language being studied. In this case, Byram and Grundy (2002) argued that culture in language teaching and learning is usually defined pragmatically as a/the culture associated with a language being learnt. On the other hand, Kramsch (1993) pointed out that a foreign culture and one's own culture should be placed together in order for learners to understand a foreign culture. Learners' interaction with native speakers or text will require them to construct their own meanings rather than having educators simply transfer information about people and their culture, and therefore non-native speakers should have opportunities to make their own meanings and to reflect on both the target culture and their
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