Literature Review: Introducing And Applying Blooms Taxonomy In Language Learning

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This literature review outlines research in areas including questioning techniques ,critical thinking and listening. This chapter specifically examines the following: (a) introducing and applying Blooms Taxonomy in education ; (b) definitions of questioning techniques and the role of questioning in the classroom; (c) The importance of listening comprehension in language learning ; and (d) various definitions of critical thinking and the role of critical thinking in language teaching and learning

2.1. Background to the Theoretical and Conceptual Views The present study was based on the taxonomy of educational objectives presented in 1956 by a team of cognitive psychologists . It was named Bloom's Taxonomy(BT) after the committee’s chairman, Benjamin Bloom (1913–1999). As Alavian (2013) has mentioned in his article
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This taxonomy ,which is the original model, identifies three domains of educational activities The first of the three domains is named the “Cognitive domain and the two others consist of the Affective, which is related to feelings or emotional areas, and Psychomotor domains with an association to manual or physical skills . The cognitive domain, which this study has been based on, involves knowledge and the development of intellectual capability and skills. There is a hierarchy of six levels ranging from the lowest to the highest: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation, which have been clarified later). As it has been shown in the following figure1, the taxonomy starts from the simplest one(knowledge) to the most complex one(evaluation) .The categories can be thought of as degrees of difficulties, that is, the first one must be mastered before the next one can take place, ( cited in Alavian

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