Theoretical Review As theoretical review, I read, through different books, journals, and articles for language learning theories related to my research topic. I found that Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is closely related with my study, which I discussed below. Social Cognitive Theory Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is a theory of psychology, which provides a clear foundation for classroom interventions designed to improve students ' learning. Bandura (1986) states that in social cognitive theory, learning from the effects of actions, is a special case of observational learning. This theory states that students learn through direct experience, observation, and modeling.
Estolano, Lawrence Kohlberg’s seminal work is his theory on the six stages of moral development and his philosophy on moral education. Kohlberg (1972) explains that the foundation for his theory on moral development came from Piaget’s (1948) notion that the child was a philosopher as well as Piaget’s structural approach to moral development. Kohlberg expanded on Piaget’s work by constructing four distinct levels of moral thinking. Within three of the levels are two related stages. Kohlberg considers these differing levels and stages as separate moral philosophies and distinct views of the social-moral world Kohlberg’s approach to moral education was through his experimental “just community” high schools, founded in 1974.
In his theory, he identified six stages of moral development and grouped it into three major levels. Each stage discussed the process through which a child learns how to differentiate right and wrong and also to develop the culture of appreciations of morality. He believed that morality can be developed positively or negatively depending on how an individual experiences different tasks in each stage of moral development in their lifespan. Unlike the other theories, Kohlberg’s developmental levels and stages are not related to age. However, most probably my students are facing the level two, stage three and four.
The Man in the Principal’s Office, by Wolcott, Harry (2003), is an ethnography representation of social science. In clarification of the research given in the book study the author formally designated the principal investigation. The Man in the Principal’s office started off as an initial research proposal describing the ethnographic approach. The author wanted the book to be a study in the social behavior of one elementary school principal. The first chapter introduces and describes how the writer proceeded as a principal investigator and what fieldwork was initiated along with an ethnographic account provided in the chapter of the book.
The most common hierarchy for ranking the cognitive level of questions is Bloom’s Taxonomy (1956), which consists of six categories of cognitive responses, named knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation . The first level of taxonomy, knowledge, questions are asked to test whether a student has gained specific information from the lesson .therefore, the student should recognize or recall information. In the comprehension level, students will be able to interpret the facts and they go beyond recall information .they require sufficient understanding to organize and arrange material mentally . In third level, application , questions are those that require students to apply a rule or process for a problem to find the right answer . They might be asked to solve a problem with the information they have gained in class .
Such tools serve as the media for developing high-level of mental processes, such as one’s understanding and problem-solving attempts. Some of the cultural tools are namely languages, signs, and symbols. This resonates with Piaget’s cognitive theory of early reading. In the age of 6 to 7 years, a child is in the pre-operational concrete cognitive stage (Harley, 2001: 221). The child is in a stage in which he or she is aware of symbols and
The theoretical framework consists of the basic theory. This theory will support the data in the research as the data will be analyze by using the theory. In analyzing the language teaching method, the basic theory is taken from book “Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching” written by Jack Richards and Rodgers (1986). In the book, there three kinds of procedure of language teaching which are approach, method and technique. The three procedures are related to another.
Even though the Taxonomy appeared as Bloom’s Taxonomy, the work belong the work of M. Englehart, E. Furst, W. Hill, and David R. Krathwohl who attached with Bloom thereby trying to understand new ways of measuring human thinking and behavior. Arranging these names in alphabetical order, Bloom comes first, so blooms’ Taxonomy as a common name for these educational objectives appeared and other names vanished over the time (THOMAS, 2004). Just after the publication of first document on Bloom’s Taxonomy, Handbook I-the cognitive domain in 1956 with the efforts of Blooms and his colleges, educational researchers directed attention to cognitive domain in education thereby
Motivation is further separated into two types: Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation .Intrinsic motivation define as; “delight of language learning itself”, and extrinsic motivation, define as; “motivation that drive by parental pressure , societal expectations, academic requirements or the other source of rewards and punishments” Richards,(2002:P,343) The researcher Rico, L.J.A. (2014) investigates the study of Identifying factors causing difficulties to productive skills: among foreign languages learners, in which he has used a qualitative method to collect data which was based on case study. The arithmetic the data has collected throughout three instruments: six observations, two interviews and field notes. Through classroom observations he has played the role of a non-participant observer. In this investigation these were helpful in distinctive what participants felt when articulating their thoughts in
In 1960s, Malcolm Knowles introduces andragogy - a new approach to teaching and learning for adult education with a focus on the learner. When initially presented in 1968, his theory comprised four core assumptions which, by 1998, evolved into a series of six, currently standing for the principles of andragogy - the means and methodology of teaching adults. Thus, Knowles differentiates adult education from child education in terms of need, self-direction, prior experience, readiness to learn, life-centred orientation, internal motivation . Nevertheless, in our endeavour, we shall refer to the four basic core principles designed by Knowles as we believe that the two extra concepts later added are self-included: needs in motivation and self-directness