Discussion Dengue is now a global threat that has emerged as an important arboviral infection in different geographical regions of the world that supports the growth of mosquitoes. An estimated 50 million people live in dengue endemic countries. Its range exceeds over a hundred tropical and subtropical countries with more than 2.5 billion people at the risk of infection with about 100 million new cases each year worldwide.  [1, 19, 20] Dengue infection has been known to be endemic in India for over two centuries as a benign and self-limited disease. In north Indian region it has emerged as major health problem.
Introduction Bluetongue is an infectious, non-contagious viral disease of ruminants and camelids transmit¬ted by Culicoides biting midges. It is caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV) and is placed in the epizooties list of diseases international. The manifestations of bluetongue range from an in apparent to a fatal outcome depending on the serotype and strain of the virus and the species, breed and age of the infected animal; older ani¬mals are generally more susceptible. Clinical signs are usually detected in fine-wool breeds of sheep and the white-tailed deer and include fever, facial oedema, haemorrhages into, and ulceration on, the oral mucosa and coronitis. Bluetongue typi¬cally occurs when susceptible animal species are introduced into areas with circulating virulent BTV strains, or when virulent BTV strains extend their range to previously
Abstract: This research paper is going to demonstrate the outbreak, effects, means of transmission, and treatment of Zika virus disease. Zika virus disease is mosquito-borne flavivirus, meaning it primarily spreads through infected mosquito bites. Through research, we discovered that the Zika virus originated from an experiment that was held on subjects about yellow fever. Zika virus cases have been reported in many countries. However, it is mainly found in the tropical regions.
“Viruses are microscopic parasites, generally much smaller than bacteria” (Live Science, 2018). They release DNA or RNA into the host cells to replicate themselves. Two prominent viruses that occur in Africa, Lassa and Zika, have caused significant loss of life. These viruses present themselves in very different ways and have different modes of transmission to humans with little to no medical treatments available. This report will evaluate the threat to public health in Queensland through the possibility of a Lassa or Zika virus outbreak and focusses on the following four criteria - distribution, effect, treatment, and control methods.
This figure may still not reflect the actual burden of this disease, owing to lack of investigative modalities in this resource poor country. Diagnostic work up in a case of Type 3 vWD patient who presented with bleeding symptoms is presented below. CASE: 18 month old male child, a resident of rural India, born out of consanguineous marriage was
In the pre – vaccine era, diphtheria was common, with annual reported case of 125,000 and annual death of 10,000 being reported in the united State of America11. Invention of an effective vaccine against diphtheria and following the introduction of mass immunization, the incidence of diphtheria fell to such an extent that at the beginning of the 1980’s many countries in the world are progressing towards the elimination of diphtheria.12 ‘The number of reported cases of diphtheria in Nigeria has been declining. Reported cases from Nigeria were 5,039 in 1989, 3995 in 2000, 2468 in 2001, 790 in 2002, and 312 in 2006.’13 There are few reports in clinical diphtheria in Nigeria, but most of these are old reports corroborating the possible declining prevalence of diphtheria in Nigeria, however we reported 5 cases over a year period in 2009 with 40% mortality and speculate on the possible resurgence of the disease.14,15 2.2.2 PERTUSIS Pertusis also known as whooping cough is a respiratory tract infection characterized by a paroxysmal cough. The most common causative organism is Bordetella
– During the early stages of Lyme disease, many people develop a red, circular skin rash known as erythema migrans. The rash, which may be diffuse and hard to discern, may not always appear at the bite site, but elsewhere and can develop up to thirty days after being bitten. However, about one in three people infected with Lyme disease do not see a rash. Some people also have flu-like symptoms in the early stages, such as a high temperature, or feeling hot and shivery, headaches, muscle and joint pain, tiredness and loss of energy. Not all tick bites cause Lyme disease.
The Zika virus was first observed in monkeys and is spread by mosquitoes in humid climate areas such as Uganda and Tanzania. Zika virus is very similar to the virus that causes dengue. To prevent yourself from this virus is to avoid visiting tropical areas. Should you have to visit a tropical country then, I strongly advise you to wear long sleeves and long trousers to avoid being bitten by insects, which is the main infection route. If you have been bitten by an insect while travelling seek medical attention.
Conversely, HIV does not kill its host; rather it progresses slowly into a terminal form of the virus known as AIDS. AIDS has a mortality rate of .114% per 100 person-years (Top). Symptoms of Ebola include vomiting, diarrhea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external hemorrhaging. Symptoms of HIV consist of a fever, large tender lymph nodes, throat inflammation, a rash, headache, and sores of the mouth and genitals. The HIV virus’ molecular structure is comprised of “the viral core (or capsid), which is usually bullet-shaped and is made from the protein p24.