Literature Review: Introduction To Dengue Fever

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction In the 19th century, dengue was considered a sporadic disease, also the second most important tropical disease after malaria, with approximately 50 to 100 million cases of dengue fever and 500,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever every year (Chen et al., 2007; Gubler, D. J., 1998). It is an arboviral disease complex that includes dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and its subsequent dengue shock syndrome (DSS), which is caused by four serotypes of dengue viruses, known as DEN-1, 2, 3 and 4 that belong to the family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus. The Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) mosquito is the principal vector of dengue in several countries, while Ae. Albopictus, a secondary dengue vector in Asia, has spread to North America, Europe, Africa, Australia and in the Asia Pacific region (Gartz, 2004; Char-rel et al, 2007).

Dengue disease is transmitted by female Aedes mosquitoes. The symptoms of dengue fever is characterized by severe joint and muscle pain, swollen lymph nodes, headache, and mild flu-like with rash. Other signs of dengue fever include bleeding gums, severe pain behind the eyes and red palms and soles. As for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), it is a more severe form of illness and can be life-threatening such as evidence of haemorrhagic in the body, petechiae (small red spots or purple splotches under the skin), black stools, circulatory collapse, or tendency to bruise

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