Literature Review: Introduction To Membrane For Water Filtration

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction to Membrane for Water Filtration Membrane technology has become a dignified separation technology over the past decade. On the membrane market, polymeric membranes are dominating and inorganic membranes are mainly used in special cases, where polymeric membranes cannot be used. In the inorganic membrane markets ceramic membrane materials are dominant, especially alumina membranes which are widely used. Ceramic membranes are especially suitable for processes with high temperatures, harsh chemical environments and for heavy metals industries [1]. Because of this, the ceramic membranes have found many applications in the food, beverage, biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries as well as in the petrochemical industry, environmental control, electronic industry, gas separation and other process industries [2]. A membrane is define as any material which forms a thin wall (0.05 mm to 2 mm) and is capable of putting up a selective resistance to the transfer of different constituents of a fluid, thus allowing the separation of some of the elements(suspensions, solutes or solvents) making up this fluid. Where filtration is a separation process that consists in passing a solid-liquid mixture through a porous material (filter) which retains the solids and allows the liquid (filtrate) to pass through. Which material will pass through the membrane is determined by the size and the chemical characteristics of the membrane and the

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