Literature Review: Introduction To Synthetic Fiber Processing

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2.1. Introduction to Synthetic Fiber Processing
Chakraborty et al., (2005)

Textile manufacturing begins with the production of fibers, which can be harvested from natural sources (cotton, linen, jute), manufactured from regenerative cellulosic materials (viscose, acetate), or may be entirely synthetic (nylon, polyester). Fibers then pass through four main stages of processing, including 1. Yarn production, 2. Fabric production, 3. dyeing, and 4. Apparel production. In yarn production, natural fibers are opened, cleaned, carded, combed, and are converted into yarn or thread. It is followed by fabric manufacturing, which involves either knitting or weaving. The yarn and fabric production steps yield the raw textile material from which most of the textile products are made. Dyeing and finishing represent the third important step. Before dying, the gray fabrics undergo various processes, such as washing, scouring, desizing, and bleaching. Desizing is a preparatory stage of cotton processing, which involves the removal of sizes (starch, polyacrylates, cellulose-derivatives, and polyvinyl alcohol) from cotton fabrics with the help of acids, enzymes, and detergents in order to smooth the fabric for dyeing and finishing. The effluent generated during desizing is characterized by high BOD and COD contents. The scouring process, on the other hand, removes oils, fats, waxes, soluble impurities, and soil particles left over during desizing. The scouring process

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