Literature Review: Learning Styles

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Review of Literature Learning styles: Learning styles are the different preferred approaches and ways of learning (Shokrpoor et al., 2015). Gregorc (1979) presented a definition of learning styles as "distinctive behaviors which serve as indicators of how a person learns from and adapts to his environment. It also gives clues as to how a person’s mind operates". Keefe (1991) viewed learning style as "composite of characteristic cognitive, affective and psychological factors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how a learner perceives, interacts with and responds to the learning environment".

Learning styles are the consistent patterns of behaviors and performances by which the individual approaches in his educational experiences (Ellis, 2001). For Grasha (2002) learning styles refer to "the personal dispositions that influence a student’s ability to acquire information, to interact with peers and teachers and to participate in learning experience". Also, it is the complex manners and conditions under which, learners efficiently and effectively understand, process, store, and recall what they are attempting to learn (Farooque et al., 2014). All the previous definitions agreed that the learning styles are individual preferences in learning situations (Shabani, 2012).

Principles of learning styles: Friedman and Alley (1984) reviewed an enormous volume of literature, which included more than 30 different learning styles instruments to
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