Literature Review: Liver Regeneration

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Literature Review Report: Liver Regeneration
ABSTRACT
Liver regeneration is a well-orchestrated and very intricate tissue regrowth process. It is the body’s significant reaction after partial hepatectomy. The process takes place through three staged phases, namely: priming phase, proliferative phase and termination phase. The overall process make use of signalling cascade pathways which include cytokines, matrix remodelling, growth factors and several feedbacks which stimulate or inhibit signals related to growth. The primary phase aims to sensitise the hepatocytes to growth factors with compensation from certain cytokines, including Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). While the proliferation phase stimulates the growth factors to promote hepatocytes to re-enter G1 phase of the cell cycle. Where as in the termination phase, the hepatocytes will stop the proliferative phase to preserve normal mass and function of the liver. Ultimately, the liver will regenerate and lost mass and modify its size to that of the species, while maintaining homeostasis through the regenerative process. The focus of this literature review will be on the important molecules which aid in liver regeneration signalling pathway, which will give us a better understanding regarding malfunction of regenerative processes leading to liver disease and the clinical implications thereof.

INTRODUCTION
The liver is the central organ which is mainly responsible for homeostasis and wide

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